Landscape Characteristics and Evolution of Traditional Chestnut Cultivation System in Kuancheng, Hebei Province
Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment
2022, 38 ( 12):
Castanea mollissima) cultivation has a long history in Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County, Hebei Province. In 2014, the traditional chestnut cultivation system in Kuancheng was selected as an important agricultural cultural heritage in China. Agricultural heritage landscape is a significant component of agricultural heritage. The study of landscape characteristics and evolution contributes to deeply understanding the characteristics and changes of landscape patterns and promotes systematic protection, inheritance, and development. Based on Landsat and MODIS satellite remote sensing data and field investigation, this paper studied the landscape distribution, structure, and evolution characteristics of traditional Chinese chestnut culture system heritage site in Kuancheng. The results show that: (1) there were mainly six types of landscape in the heritage area: chestnut forest, deciduous forest, evergreen forest, farmland, construction land, and water area. The forest coverage rate was up to 84.72%, and the chestnut forest was the second most dominant landscape type after the deciduous forest, with an area of 151.60 km 2 (27.70%). (2) The heritage system formed a spatial structure of mountain landscape from the top of the mountain to the valley, which was "forest-chestnut forest-farmland-village-water area", and formed a landscape of flat and sloping chestnut forest, as well as a composite intercropping landscape with crops, fungi, poultry, and medicinal materials. (3) The overall landscape distribution of the heritage site is fragmented, while the local connectivity within each landscape type is sufficient; (4) Since 2000, the forest coverage of the heritage area has been expanding at a rate of 8.18 km 2·a -1, and the chestnut forest contributed 83.28% to the increase of forest area, and helped to improve the regional vegetation greenness. The traditional Chinese chestnut cultivation system in Kuancheng, Hebei province has crucial economic, cultural and ecological values. With the policy support of Kuancheng government, the landscape dominance of chestnut forest is constantly improving.
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