Table of Content

Volume 31 Issue 1
25 January 2015
Restoration of Ecological Functions: Goal and Orientation of Ecological Restoration in China
GAO Ji-Xi, YANG Zhao-Ping
2015, 31(1):  1-6.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.001
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To curb unceasing degradation of the ecosystem,the Chinese government has implemented a series of critical ecological restoration projects, which have played or are playing important roles in guaranteeing regional ecological security and sustainable development. However, in the past these ecological restoration projects were mostly ecological–problem oriented, giving little attention to ecological functions, thus resulting in poor joint connection between ecological restoration and regional coordinated development in some aspects, which in turn impeded these projects to bring into full play their ecological and economic benefits. Hence, ecological restoration in China should get to be ecological function-oriented rather than ecological  problems-oriented and set the restoration of ecological functions as the major goal of the ecological restoration of the country. In order to improve  benefit of the ecological restoration and effectively enhance the capability of the ecosystem of producing ecological products, it is essential to integrate ecological restoration projects sponsored by various government departments in China, set up a scientific decision-making system for ecological restoration projects, and build up a  dynamic evaluation system for appraising ecological function-oriented ecological restoration projects.
Trends of the Implementation of "Convention on Biological Diversity" After Development of “Aichi Targets”and Countermeasures
CHAI Li-Wei, CAO Xiao-Feng, ZHANG Jie-Qing, HUANG Yi
2015, 31(1):  7-11.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.002
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2010 was the International Biological Diversity Year, when at the Conference of Parties to Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in Nagoya, Japan, new ten-year biodiversity strategies and corresponding biodiversity targets, also known as “Aichi Targets”, were developed. The newly adopted “Aichi Targets”, which is a reflection of the work on international biodiversity in the past decade, and also an outlook of development of biodiversity in the coming decade. After a comprehensive analysis of the documents and resolutions passed by CBD before and after the adoption of the “Aichi Targets”, and the specific expositions on some issues made by the experts at the conference, it is found that the implementation of CBD can be summarized into three aspects:(1) continuous innovation of the CBD implementation mechanism; (2) shift of the focus of the implementation on the country level; and (3)mobilization of the innovation resources. In the case of China, it is essential to take reasonable countermeasures, which should include adoption of more positive measures in response to the CBD`s request of updating national biodiversity targets with focus laid on mainstreaming, insist on the “three major goals” in the international negotiation so as to prevent possible abeyance of topic discussion due to topic diversification;and obtain greater voice in the international negotiation on allocation of the funds for international biodiversity while increasing capital investment inthis topic.
Progress in Research on Characteristics of Bioaerosol Diffused During Livestock Breeding
GAO Min, JIA Rui-Zhi, CHOU Tian-Lei, SONG Yuan, WANG Xu-Ming
2015, 31(1):  12-21.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.003
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The bioaerosol generated and emitted from intensive livestock breeding operations is a potential gaseous pollutant thatmay bring about harm to health of the animals and workers in the operation and pollution of the surroundings at a far distance.A brief introduction is presented to the status quo of the pollution, characteristics of the productionand particle size distribution of the bioaerosol and their influencing factors;progresses in the study on bioaerosol carrying antibiotics-fast bacteria and genes are summarized; and an outlook is described on foci and direction of the research in future with an expectation of providing some reference for controlling generation and emission of bioaerosol from intensive livestock breeding.
Changes in ≥0 ℃ Accumulated Temperature and Agricultural Adaptative Stretegies in the Yangtze River Basin in Recent 50 Years
WANG Tao, SHEN Wei-Shou, LIN Nai-Feng, OU Yang-Yan , SHI Jian-Qiao
2015, 31(1):  22-29.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.004
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Analysis was done of the data of daily mean temperature of the recent 50 years (1961 – 2010) from the 659 meteorological stations in the Yangtze River Basin using the linear trend estimation method and GIS spatial analysis method for ≥0 ℃ accumulated temperature, duration of the days ≥0 ℃and tempro-sparial distribution of the beginning and ending of the peiord. Results show that in the past 50 years, the annual mean temperature in the basin is rising slowly with a tendency rate reaching to 0.18 ℃·d·(10 a) -1 and amplitude of the change is lower than the warming rate of the country during the same period. The annual mean ≥0℃ accumulated temperature was 5496.77 ℃·d with a tendency rate being 69.92 ℃·d·(10 a)-1 in the Yangtze River Basin, of which the middle reaches were the highest in annual mean ≥0℃ accumulated temperature and the upper reaches were the lowest. The mean duration was 342.25 d with a trend rate being 2.51 d·(10 a)-1. The middle reaches were also the highest in duration, being 350.55 d and the lower reaches were in the tendency rate, being 3.73 d·(10 a)-1. The beginning date of the duration was advanced and the ending date postponed. The duration was steadily increasing year by year, which was mainly attributed to the advancement of the beginning date. The decadal variation of accumulated temperature displayed V shaped curve, which began to increase significantly in the 90s, while the number of days between the beginning and ending of the ≥0℃ accumulated temperature period increased steadily with the decases. The increase was more significant in the 1970s - 1990s.Spatial analysis shows that an increasing tendency went gradually from northwest to southeast. However, there were two distinct high value areas, one in the west Sichuan Basin, and the other in the southeast of the river basin, including south Hunan and southeast Jiangxi and one low value area that the Tongtian River Basin. The contours of accumulated temperatures moved westward slowly with decades passing by. Besides moving westward, the contour of 6 000 ℃, has also been moving northward significantly since the 1990s. Compared with the 1960s, accumulated temperature increased in the whole Yangtze River Basin, except for a small region in Sichuan Province in 2000s. In response to the increase in accumulated temperature, it is necessary to take some measures, like use of new crop varieties and crop rotation systems that are more suitable to warm weather, so as to avoid waste of the heat resources and prevent damage of increased heat resourcs to crop growth in the Yangtze River Basin.
Extreme Temperature Change of Shangzhou in Recent 60 Years
LI Ru-Yi, ZHAO Jing-Bo
2015, 31(1):  30-38.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.005
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The research on mountain climate of a natural area with a geographic boundary is beneficial to reveal the complex mechanism governing the relation between local and global climate change. Based on the daily temperature data from 1955 to 2012, with 9 international commonly used index ,and the methods of linear trend analysis, accumulative anomaly, Morlet complex wavelet, moving T- test, Mann-Kendall examinationand principal component analysis are comprehensively employed to analyze the temporal variability of climate extremes of Shangzhou hinterland of Qinling region.The study found that:(1)The average temperature slowly increasedand the changesbetweenseasons lessenedin the past 60 years in Shangzhou .  (2)The extreme minimum temperature, extreme maximum temperature, annual temperature range, cold nights, warm days increased at different rate, while high temperature, frost days, warm nights, cold days decreased at different rates. (3)It is a clear asymmetric change of air temperature between the highest and lowest temperature and the relationship of temperaturechanges bwtween daytime and night. (4) All the extreme temperature indices have cycles of 16 , 22  and 30 years, with 30 years to be the dominating cycle. (5)Nine extreme temperature indices experienced mutation, and the mutation year concentrated in 1990s. (6)Changes in extreme high temperature and diurnal index are the most obvious, and the correlation between the cold index and the warm index is remarkable. On the bases of the research data and conclusions, comments have been made to the prevention of natural disasterin Shangzhou area.
A Comprehensive Evaluation Index System for Rural Environmental Quality
SUN Qin-Fang, ZHAO Ke-Qiang, ZHU Lin, RUI Han-Yi, ZHU Hong-Biao, JU Chang-Hua, ZHANG Wei-Dong, ZHU Qin-Yuan
2015, 31(1):  39-43.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.006
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Comprehensive rural environmental quality assessment is an important groundwork for rural environmental protection. However, so far, China has not yet established any complete or effective rural environmental quality assessment index system or method. In the light of the fact that the rural areas in China are so vast and vary sharply in socio-economic development level, natural conditions, environmental carrying capacity and environmental monitoring capability, a comprehensive rural environmental quality assessment index system, consisting of four aspects, i.e. environmental factors, ecological factors, residential environment construction and public satisfaction, is established with the compound ecosystem theory as its guidance and the PSR model as its basis.
Re-Ordination of Air Pollution Indices of Some Typical Cities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Based on Meteorological Adjustment
BAI He-Ming, SHI Hua-Ding, GAO Qing-Xian, LI Xi-Cang, DI Rui-Qi, WU Yi-Hang
2015, 31(1):  44-49.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.007
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The study on separation of meteorological information and emission information of pollution sources in air pollutant time series is of some important significance to evaluation of air pollution control measures. Based on the daily air pollution index (API) and simultaneous surface meteorological observation data during 2001-2010 in Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) wave filter method was used to break the API time series into short-term, seasonal and long-term components, and then the stepwise regression was used to set up API baseline and short-term components separately and establish linear regression models for meteorological variables of corresponding scales. The residual differences between the baseline and short-term components were KZ filtered and series reestablished. And eventually an API time series free of meteorological impacts was worked out. Results of the study show that the long-term component of API shows a downward trend in all the three cities from 2002-2009, which may be attributed to changes in emission with the influence of meteorology removed, namely, meteorological adjustment. Comparison of the meteorologicaly adjusted long-term trends with unadjusted ones show that unfavorable meteorological conditions often lead to increase by 1-13 in the long-term API in the three cities, whereas favorable meteorological conditions account for reduction by 2-6 in the component.
Characteristics of Spatial Distribution of Water Quality in Rivers of Shanghai in Autumn 2013
LI Dian-Bao, ZHANG Wei, WANG Li-Qing, XU Yu-Ping, JI Gao-Hua
2015, 31(1):  50-58.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.008
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Water qualities of 16 small and medium rivers (48 sampling sites) and the Huangpu River at 13 sections (42 sampling sites) were investigated in autumn of 2013. A comprehensive analysis was conducted of the findings using the cluster analysis (CA) and discriminant analysis (DA) methods on similarities, differences and controlling factor of spatial distributions of water qualities in the rivers in autumn as affected by type of land use of the surrounding area and type of revetment. Results show that the rivers tended to be high in content of nutrient salts (nitrogen, phosphorus) and organic matter in autumn, but the Huangpu River was on the whole better than the small and medium rivers (P<0.05) in water quality, and its upper reaches were better than the middle and lower reaches; Analysis by location of a river and type of land use of its surroundings shows that the rivers running through the main urban a,reas downtown and areas surrounded by obvious population sources were much worse than those flowing in the suburbs in water quality; With Wujing Section set as a division line, the river south to the section was better than the river north to the section in water quality,Results of spatial cluster analysis indicate that the rivers in Shanghai could be sorted into three groups, that is, the Huangpu River water system and Dazhi River,rivers in the suburban and periurban areas,and rivers in relatively densely populated urban and downtown areas and areas surrounded by typical pollution sources. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), total suspended solids (TSS) and electrical conductivity (EC) were the main water quality indices characterizing spatial heterogeneity of the distribution of water quality.     
Impact of Landscape Pattern of Riparian Buffers on Water Quality in the Upper Reaches of Huntai River Basin
LI Yan-Li, LI Yan-Fen, XU Zong-Xue, GUAN Zhong-Mei
2015, 31(1):  59-68.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.009
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Out of the upper reaches water system of the Huntai River, encompassing 31 water quality monitoring stations, riparian buffer zones of 5 different scales were delineated with ArcGIS, and 8 landscape indices of the buffer zones at the type and landscape levels were calculated using the FRACSTATS software. Spatial analysis, Correlation analysis and redundancy analysis were performed to define relationships of landscape patterns of the riparian buffer zones different in width with water quality from the aspects of number of landscapes in composition and space pattern of the landscape. Results show that the impact of a landscape pattern on water quality varied with the width of the riparian buffer zone. Landscape pattern of a riparian buffer zone 300m in width can well explain 48.5% of the variation of water quality. In riparian buffer zones 50 and 100m in width, the landscape number composition indices could better explain spatial variation of water quality than the landscape space pattern indices, and the former could explain 16% and 18% of the variation of water quality, while the latter could do 11% and 6%, and up to 13% and 12% in the case of upland field, because upland field was the dominant landscape in riparian buffer zones ≤100 m in width. However, in riparian buffer zones, 300, 500 or 1000m in width, things went reversely, with the latter exceeding former in explaining the variation of water quality. The latter could  explain 25%, 20% and 23%, while the former 10%, 11.3% and 14.3%. While width of the riparian buffer zone was ≥300m,the impacts of landscape space pattern indices on water quality increased with width of the riparian buffer zone. Dominant landscape space pattern indices include PD, CONTAG, SHDI and SHEI at landscape level, and forest fragmentation at the type level.
IPCC AR5-Based Analysis of Variation of Potential Suitable Habitats for Evergreen Broadleaf Forest in China
LEI Jun-Cheng, XU Hai-Gen, WU Jun, GUAN Qing-Wei
2015, 31(1):  69-76.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.010
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A better understanding of spatial variation of potential suitable habitats for evergreen broadleaf forest in China will play an extremely significant role in biodiversity conservation, vegetation restoration, and regional planning in the future. Based on the latest climate scenario data published in the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) , changes in potential suitable habitat for evergreen broadleaf forest under predicted changing climate till 2050s were predicted with the aid of ModEco, a multi-model ensemble forecasting platform for prediction of species distribution. Results show that climate change will lead to expansion of the area of potential suitable habitat for evergreen broadleaf forest, mainly in the southeast and south parts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The higher the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the more significant the expansion.
Effect of Agro-landscape Heterogeneity as Affected by Scale on Diversity of Coleoptera in Fengqiu County in the Lower Reaches of the Yellow River
HOU Xiao-Yun, SONG Bo, ZHAO Shuang, DING Sheng-Yan
2015, 31(1):  77-81.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.011
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In Fengqiu County of Henan Province, a typical agricultural region in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, a total of 47 sampling plots were selected in the light of landscape properties, and in each plot, Coleoptera beetles were collected from 4 different habitats, namely farmland, woodland, ditch and hedgerow, in May 2013. Then the plots were sorted into 4 types of landscaspes in the light of biodiversity, that is, (1) high patch density and high patch richness (high configuration heterogeneity and high composition heterogeneity, HCHC), (2) high patch density and low patch richness (high configuration heterogeneity and low composition heterogeneity, HCLC), (3) low patch density and high patch richness (low configuration heterogeneity and high composition heterogeneity, LCHC), (4) low patch density and low patch richness (low configuration heterogeneity and low composition heterogeneity, LCLC). To validate the hypothesis that the higher the landscape heterogeneity of an agricultural area, the higher the richness and abundance of Coleoptera beetles. Nonlinear regression was applied to analyze relationship between Coleoptera diversity and landscape heterogeneity within the radius of 200 , 500, 750 , 1000 , 1250 , 1500 , 1750 and 2000 m around the centre of a sampling plot, separately. It was found that within the radius of 200m, the biodiversity or the richness and abundance of Coleoptera beetles was the most positively related to landscape heterogeneity in configuration and composition; the abundance of Coleoptera beetles was high in areas with high landscape heterogeneity in configuration and composition; landscape configuration heterogeneity had a significant effect on Coleoptera abundance; and Coleoptera richness did not vary much between landscapes regardless of composition and configuration heterogeneity. It is, therefore, concluded that configuration heterogeneity may play an important role in controlling Coleoptera abundance, and in this study area, so Coleoptera abundance would be higher when a landscape increases its configuration heterogeneity. Decrease in landscape heterogeneity resulting from the conversion of natural land into cultivated land would alter the biodiversity in these landscapes and lead to loss of biodiversity associated ecosystem services essential for sustainable agriculture.
Effect of Pen Culture on Community Structure of Planktonic Crustaceans in Lake Junshan
LIU Bao-Gui, TAN Guo-Liang, XING Jiu-Sheng, LI Mei, CHEN Yu-Wei
2015, 31(1):  82-87.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.012
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A survey was carried out of Lake Junshan, a dammed lake of Lake Poyang for variation of community structure and spatio-termporal distribution of planktonic crustaceans, during the wet, normal and dry seasons of 2012—2013. Results show that the planktonic crustaceans in the lake varied between 29.4 (normal season)and 154.7 L-1(dry season) in abundance, and between 0.64 (wet season)and 7.44 mg·L-1(dry season) in total biomass. The cladoceran in the lake was dominated by Daphnia cucullata in abundance and biomass during the dry and normal season, and by Bosmina spp. , Ceriodaphnia spp. and Diaphanosoma spp. during the wet season, while the Copepods was by nauplius and copepodids all the year round. The annual mean abundance of planktonic crustaceans was much higher at Sites J6, J7, J8 and J9, in the middle of the lake, than at any other sites, and lower at Sites J4 and J5 in the estuary and J1 at the outlet of the lake. It is held that aquicultural activities are the key factor affecting seasonal spatial distribution and community structure of planktonic crustaceans in Lake Junshan. Uneven spatial distribution of flow velocity was also a factor affecting the variation. Lake Junshan was obviously higher than Lake Poyang in abundance of planktonic crustaceans and different from the latter in community structure of planktonic crustaceans, which may be attributed to the slower flow velocity, longer cycle of water replacement and higher nutritional level of the water in the lake as a result of the barricade between the two lakes. Such hydraulic environment is more favorable to growth and propagation of planktonic crustaceans. Aquicultural activities in the lake are probably the main cause to the difference between the two lakes in community structure of planktonic crustacean.
Effect of Harvest Cutting on Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in the Temperate Secondary Forests of Northeast China
CHEN Hong-Lian, ZHANG Yan-Dong, SUN Hai-Long, WU Shi-Yi
2015, 31(1):  88-93.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.013
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A field experiment was carried out using a PVC tube in-situ incubation method to explore effect of harvest cutting on soil net nitrogen (N)  mineralization rate and net nitrification rate in temperate secondary forests one year after the felling operation varying in intensity in the Maoershan region of Heilongjiang Province. Results show that in terms of means of soil net N mineralization rates and net nitrification rates in the 0 - 10 soil layer, the treatments followed an order of afforestation after clear cutting > farming after clear cutting > 50% of the stand volume remove>25% of the stand volume removed > control. Soil water content in the 0-12 cm soil layer was  significantly higher in the harvested plots than in the control.Both net N mineralization rate and net nitrification rate were significantly and positively related to soil water content. Harvesting also increased soil organic carbon content. All the findings suggest that the increased soil water and organic carbon are the main causes of the increase in soil net N mineralization rate and net nitrification rate after harvest cutting. In addition, harvest cutting also triggered change in soil inorganic N content. During the growing season, the means of NO3--N contents in the harvested plots were significantly higher than that in the control, while the means of NH4+-N were quite the contrary. Soil inorganic N was dominated with NO3--N in the harvested plots, and with NH4+-N in the control. The above findings suggest that harvest cutting may increase NO3--N content in the soil, and hence, the risk of losing soil nitrogen in this region.
Effects of Pistia stratiotes-Probiotics Purifying Eutrophied Pond Water
LI Min, DUAN Deng-Xuan, XU Guo-Jing, DU Xing-Hua, LIU Fei
2015, 31(1):  94-99.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.014
Abstract ( 1287 )   HTML ( 1)   PDF (1283KB) ( 1965 )  
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Inorder to study synergic effect of hydrophyte (Pistia stratiotes) and compound microbial preparation purifying water in aquacultural ponds, an experiment, designed to have five treatments different in concentration of microbial preparation (1×104, 3×104, 5×104, 7×104 and 9×104mL-1 ,number of microorganism was measured by cfu), was carried out. Results demonstrate that the water purifying effect of the combination was significantly better than that of CK (with hydrophyte only); and the effect of removing total nitrogen(TN), total phosphorus(TP), COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N) varied with the concentration of microbial preparation in the combination. Through synergic actions, the combination could not only significantly decrease TP,NH4+-N and NO2--N contents in the eutrophied water, but also suppress increase in TN and COD contents. The findings indicate that the fortified hydrophyte-microorganisms system is an effective in-situ biological purification system for eutrophied aquiculture water. When hydrophytes in a pond reach 20% in coverage, it is proper to add 3×104 mL-1 of compound microbial preparation.
Denitrification Rates in Sediments of Suzhou River and Rivers in Chongming Island of Shanghai and Their Affecting Factors
YU Lin, WANG Dong-Qi, DENG Huan-Guang, LI Yang-Jie, CHANG Si-Qi, YE Xiao, CHEN Zhen-Lou
2015, 31(1):  100-105.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.015
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Denitrification rates in the sediments of the Suzhou River and the rivers in Chongming Island of Shanghai were measured with the acetylene inhibition method. Extractable NO3- and NH4+, sediment organic carbon (SOC), bulk density, moisture content of the sediments, and relevant physicochemical properties of their overlying waters were also determined. Results show that the denitrification rate in the top 10cm sediment of the Suzhou River is 126.22 μg·m-2·h-1, 1.2 times higher than that in the rivers in the Chongming Island (105.57 μg·m-2·h-1). Obviously it is much higher in the sediment of a seriously polluted river running through the urban area than in the sediment of a less polluted rural river. Denitrification rate in the sediments varied with sediment depth (0 - 10cm), ranging from 0.15 to 5.07 ng·g-1·h-1 in the Suzhou River, and from 0.39 to 2.80 ng·g-1·h-1 in the rivers in the Chongming Island, and decreased with the increasing depth. Correlation analysis of sediment denitrification rate with environmental factors demonstrates that the denitrification rate was positively related to extractable NO3--N in the sediment (Suzhou River: r=0.699, P<0.05; Chongming rivers: r=0.629, P<0.05). So extractable NO3--N is the key factor influencing sediment denitrification rate in the sediment.
Enrichment of Ammonia-Nitrogen by Different Organo–Mineral Complexes in Humus
REN Zi-Hang, MA Xiu-Lan, WANG Er-Li, LI Meng-Yuan
2015, 31(1):  106-111.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.016
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In order to explore effects of different humus components on loss of adsorptive ammonia-nitrogen, characteristics of the enrichment of ammonia-nitrogen by different organo–mineral complexes, components of humus were investigated through a batch experiment of equilibrium adsorption. Results indicate that in terms of ammonia-nitrogenenrichment coefficient, the organo-kaolinite complexes in humus displayed an order of humic acid–Kaolinite > humin–Kaolinite > fulvic acid –Kaolinite, being 1.26, 1.14 and 1.01, respectively; and the organo-Montmorillonite complexes did an order of humic acid–Montmorillonite > humin–Montmorillonite > fulvic acid–Montmorillonite, being 1.22, 1.13 and 1.03, respectively. The adsorption of filling of ammonia-nitrogen into pores existing in the glassy colloids cementing humic acids and humin, rated as hard carbon, is the major cause leading to higher ammonia-nitrogen enrichment coefficient of humic and fulvic acids-mineral complexes.
Status Quo and Evaluation of the Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in Urban Soil of Qingdao City
LI Shan-Shan, CAO Guang-Chao, SHI Ping-Chao, JIANG Gang, YUAN Jie
2015, 31(1):  112-117.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.017
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Spatial distributions of eight heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the top soil in Qingdao city were analyzed by means of the Ordinary Kriging, and accumulation of the heavy metals in the soil assessed with the Single Factor Index and Nemerow Index methods. Results show that the eight heavy metals are significantly anisotropic in spatial variability, on the whole, displaying a decreasing trend from the northeast to southwest. The proportion of the soil samples showing obvious accumulation as affected by heavy metals contamination is quite low, being 4.7%, and the soil environment quality in general is good. The contents of Zn, Hg, Cd, Cr and Cu in some soil samples around traffic hubs and in the industrial zones and living quarters are over Grade III criteria of the National Standard for Soil Environment Quality. The findings of the study may serve as reference for decision making in urban environmental planning and management, and urban soil remediation .
Acute Toxicity of Suspension and Lixivium from Dredged Sludge to Megalopa of Portunus trituberculatus and Effect of the Substances on HSP70 Gene Expression in the Megalopa
JIANG Mei, LI Lei, SHEN Xin-Qiang, WU Qing-Yuan, NIU Jun-Xiang, XU Gao-Peng
2015, 31(1):  118-123.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.018
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Toxic effect of suspension and lixivium from the dredged sludge of the Yangshan channel project on megalopa of Portunus trituberculatus was evaluated, through a laboratory simulation experiment.Results show that (1) mortality of the megalopa increased gradually with concentration of the suspension and lixivium, and 96h LC50 and SC of the lixivium to megalopa of Portunus trituberculatus was  1294.66 ml·L-1 and 129.466ml·L-1, respectively, and of the suspension, 996.17ml·L-1 and 99.617ml·L-1, respectively; (2) molting rate of the megalopa decreased with increasing concentration of the suspension and lixivium; it was slightly higher in the group of lixivium treatments than in the group of suspension treatments group when they were the same in volume concentration; the suspension inhibited molting of megalopa, while the lixivium inhibited hardening of new shell; (3) After 24 hours of exposure to the suspension and lixivium, the expression of HSP70 in the muscle of megalopa increased rapidly, after 72 hours, it peaked in all the treatments, and after 96 hours, it decreased to a varying extent in all the treatments and the most significantly in the treatment the highest in concentration, while in the control it kept on rising.
Simulation on Mesophilic Gassy Fermentation by Food Waste Mixed with Corn Straw
JIANG Tao, LI Ping, REN Gui-Ying, GAO Li-Hong, WEI Xiu-Li, LIU Ke, LI Ping, XIANG Yuan-Yong
2015, 31(1):  124-130.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.019
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The present study investigated mesophilic gassy fermentation by food waste mixed with corn straw.Food waste and corn straw were mixed in different level of dry matter ratio,i.e.1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 ,1:0 .Under the condition of 35℃ and total solid mass fraction (ω)of 5%,the characteristics of gas production on different ratio of food waste and corn straw were evaluated.Results show that when the ratio of kitchen waste and corn straw is 1:2, CH4 average prodution reached up to 12741mL,with a yield of 299.9mL•g-1volatile solids(VS).Simultaneous measurement of pH value indicated that co-digestion of  food waste with corn straw created a well buffering environment for anaerobic fermentation and improved the stability of gas production.The fermentation process of food waste and corn straw could be well simulated by modified Gompertz equation,indicating that lag phase and duration of fermentation would decrease with in crease in corn staw ratio in the mixture.Therefore,it is suggested that fermentation of food waste with corn straw will significantly improve gas production and biodegradation in the system.
Development and Application of a Water Quality-Restrained Model for Optimization of Farming Modes
LIU San-Sheng, FU Dian-Zheng, YAN Duan, JIE Yu-Lei, LI Wei
2015, 31(1):  131-136.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2015.01.020
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Aimed at farmland irrigation-crop-cultivation systems,a new model was developed for optimization of  agricultural cultivation management,encompassing the factor of water quality and some others. With the maximum benefit of a farmland system being its target function and the traditional irrigation volume and the limitation of the use of pesticides and fertilizer being its restraints, this model also takes into account the influence of concentration of the pollutants in farmland runoff and river flowon the system, in optimizing crop cultivation mode for the farmland system. A case analysis shows that the existence of the restraint of water quality leads to a variety of farming modes for different farmlands. At the same time, for an optimal farming mode, the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the river flow are allowed to reach as high as the limit set for Grade III of the GB 3838-2002 “Standard for Surface Water Environment Quality”. So that, the model can not only provide some scientific basis for rational utilization of agricultural water resources, but also offer some referenceto decision makers in designing scientific farming modes.