Table of Content

Volume 32 Issue 1
25 January 2016
Evaluation of In-situ Conservation of Higher Plants in China
ZHANG Hao-nan, QIN Wei-hua, LI Zhong-lin, XU Wang-gu, XIA Xin, JIANG Ming-kang
2016, 32(1):  1-6.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.001
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Based on the data of higher plants in the 1458 nature reserves in China, the 36866 species of higher plants so far identified in China were sorted into 7 groups in terms of in-situ conservation, i.e., effectively protected, well protected, generally protected, scarcely protected, unknown, unprotected and not evaluated. Evaluation of the in-situ conservation of each group was conducted. Results show that 28385 species of higher plants in the nature reserves are in-situ protected to varying degrees, accounting for 81.25% of the total evaluated(exclusive of the species of higher plants distributed in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, the same below),and 6552 species of higher plants are in the groups of unknown or unprotected, accounting for 18.75%. In addition, 1929 species of higher plants are distributed only in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan areas, accounting for 5.23% of the total species(36866 species) of the country. In-situ conservation of angiosperm, gymnosperm, fern and bryophyte is also evaluated. Based on the evaluation, strategies are brought forth aiming at better in-situ conservation of higher plant species in China.

Evaluation of In-situ Conservation of Vertebrates in China
ZHOU Da-qing, GAO Jun, QIAN Zhe-dong, ZHANG Hao-nan, XU Wang-gu, JIANG Ming-kang
2016, 32(1):  7-12.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.002
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Setting up nature reserves is considered as the most efficient way to protect biodiversity in-situ. Populations of wild vertebrates and their distribution in nature reserves of China were analyzed. In situ conservation of the 3632 vertebrates in China was evaluated. Results show that 23.49% of the vertebrate species in the nature reserves were effectively protected, 8.59% well protected, 14.92% generally protected, 47.66% less protected, 0.28% not protected, 0.94% unclear, and 4.13% not evaluated. Although 94.66% of the vertebrate species were protected to a varying degree, the percentage of the vertebrates species being effectively or well protected was obviously a bit too low and the protection of most of the vertebrates species was a worrisome issue. In order to strengthen in-situ protection of the vertebrates in China, it is essential to further optimize the distribution of nature reserves with emphasis on protection of minority species.

Status of In-situ Conservation of Nature Relics in Nature Reserves in China
QIAN Zhe-dong, GAO Jun, ZHANG Hao-nan, XU Wang-gu, XIA Xin, WANG Zhi, JIANG Ming-kang
2016, 32(1):  13-18.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.003
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Based on the data of the comprehensive scientific surveys of and, overall planning for the 1458 nature reserves in China and their analysis, status of in-situ conservation of nature relics in nature reserves were assessed. Results show that a total of 220 nature reserves have set the nature relics found therein as major objects of protection. The protected nature relics encompass 35 sub-groups in 12 groups of 3 categories, accounting for 76% of the total sub-groups, 92% of the total groups and 100% of the total categories. An in-situ nature relics protection network system has primarily come into shape. Meanwhile, problems in in-situ protection of nature relics in the nature reserves, like low in development, imbalance in spatial distribution, irrational in type structure and inadequate in knowledge, are addressed and corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

Distribution of Community Residents in Nature Reserves and Its Impacts on the Reserves in China
XU Wang-gu, GAO Jun, XIA Xin, ZHOU Da-qing, LI Zhong-lin, JIANG Ming-kang
2016, 32(1):  19-23.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.004
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The establishment of nature reserves offers the most basic guarantee to in-situ conservation of biodiversity. However, the contradiction between community development and resource conservation in the reserves has been getting more and more intense, with the country strengthening its effort on in-situ conservation, how to harmonize the development with the conservation has become one of the core tasks for nature reserve management. Distribution of local residents in and its impacts on the nature reserves in China were analyzed, based on the basic survey program of nature reserves and the literature available. Results show that by the end of 2014, a total of 12.56 million residents had dwelled in the 1657 boundary-defined nature reserves, averaging 0.1 ind·hm-2. The activities of the residents inevitably rendered some impacts on the nature reserves, mainly in the aspects of land resources, wildlife and environmental quality. For the first time, this study systematically elucidated distribution patterns of local residents in the nature reserves and their impacts on the reserves in China, which is of important significance to formulation of related policies for in-situ conservation of biodiversity and promotion of harmonized development of the nature reserves and the community economy.

Status Quo of Ecological Tourism in Nature Reserves in China
ZHANG Hao-nan, QIN Wei-hua, ZHOU Da-qing, FAN Lu-ning, LI Zhong-lin, JIANG Ming-kang
2016, 32(1):  24-29.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.005
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Information was collected by means of questionnaires about volume, scale and distribution of ecological tourism activities in nature reserves of China for analysis and evaluation of the status of the ecological tourism. Results show that there are a total of 563 nature reserves that are open to ecological tourism, and among them 141 are national nature reserves and 422 local nature reserves. The development of ecological tourism varies with the nature reserves relative to their locations in different province-level administrative regions and different geographical areas. The top three provinces that have the highest number of nature reserves open to ecological tourism are Jiangxi, Yunnan and Shandong, and the top ten provinces in the list of number of nature reserves open to ecological tourism have a total of 352 reserves altogether, accounting for 62.5% of the total in China. The top three geographic regions that are the highest in development scale of ecological tourism are Southwest, Central South and North China, and among them, Southwest China is much higher than the others in scale and revenue of ecological tourism, accounting for 34.7% and 64.3% of the nation's, respectively.

Problems in Construction of Management System of Nature Reserves in China and Countermeasures
XIA Xin, WANG Zhi, XU Wang-gu, ZHANG Hao-nan, ZHOU Da-qing, JIANG Ming-kang
2016, 32(1):  30-34.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.006
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The current management agency of nature reserves in China were not uniform in construction for the country and do not have sound and complete set of management systems or relevant laws or regulations. Nature reserve at different levels, under different administrations or in different regions, vary sharply in the construction of their management structures. Countermeasures to the problems, such as unstandardized construction, undefined attributes and unguaranteed funds in management of nature reserves, have been put forward based on investigations and analysis of the status quo of the management of the nature reserves.

Characteristics of and Problems in Economic Investment in Nature Reserves of China
QIAN Zhe-dong, GUO Chen, WU Ru-hua, LIANG Yu-tong, YANG Quan-guang, PAN Zi-ping, PAN Hong, GAO Jun, JIANG Ming-kang
2016, 32(1):  35-40.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.007
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Data about the economic investment in nature reserves were collected by means of questionnaire and consultation with leading officials of the nature reserves and retrieval from literature in 2013 for analysis of status quo of and problems in funding of the nature reserves, concerning channel, scale, level and use. Results show that the nation invested a total of 18388 million yuan RMB into the 1262 national/provincial nature reserves or on average 14.5706 million yuan RMB per reserve or 13801.42 yuan RMB per unit area(km-2). The funds invested into the nature reserves increased by 2.99 times from 1999 to 2009, and by 2.45 times from 2009 to 2013. Comparison shows that the total fund China put into the nature reserve was a bit lower than that the US government put into the national parks. However, the funding of an individual national nature reserve amounted only to 74.8% of that of an American national park, and only 27.0% in terms of funding per unit area. The funds of the nature reserves were controlled by different administration departments, who did not have any integrated budgeting of their incoming funds and revenue, which added to irrational restriction of expenditure and led to shortage and structural deficiency of funds for the nature reserves as a whole.

Concept and Significance of Ecological Assets Capitalization
GAO Ji-xi, LI Hui-min, TIAN Mei-rong
2016, 32(1):  41-46.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.008
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Socio-economic development relies on ecological assets. However, the value of ecological assets has seldom been really embodied during development of the socio-economy, thus causing repeatedly ecological destruction and environmental pollution. Capitalization of ecological assets is an important way to realize proliferation of the assets and a development trend for ecological protection in the future, too. The concepts of resource, assets and capital as well as ecological resource, ecological assets and ecological capital are discussed and analyzed; the conception of ecological assets capitalization is brought forth and its four phases, i.e. front-end investment, ecological capital operation, value realization and ecological construction, are discussed. After elaboration of significance of the capitalization, it has been held that ecological assets capitalization is an effective means to harmonize natural protection and economic development, a reasonable way to avoid the phenomenon of "resource curse" and a solid foundation to realize marketization of ecological service values. Based on the discussion and analysis above, it is recommended to set up rational classification standards and evaluation procedures for ecological assets; to establish corresponding management authorities and accounts; to define property rights and enhance marketing environment; as well as to improve laws and regulations for the strengthening of macro-control by the government in order to ensure ecological assets capitalization practical.

Use of TMDL for Reference and Flow-Chat of Management of Water Pollution Volume Control in China
LIU Zhuang, LIU Ai-ping, ZHUANG Wei, ZHANG Li, HE Fei, XIE Yu-feng, HANG Xiao-shuai, GAO Ji-xi
2016, 32(1):  47-52.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.009
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Based on the review of relevant literatures, the framework and characters of TMDL(total maximum daily loads) and the research in progress have been analyzed. Using the TMDL for reference, problems in pollution volume control of China are discussed. The results show that the indices for performance assessment of total pollution volume reduction are too simple; the formulation of the targets of the total volume control and pollution reduction failed to take into account of aquatic environmental capacity; the total volume control and pollution reduction is not related to improvement of water quality; and management and scientific research go adrift.It is, therefore, essential to strengthen the researches on water quality modeling and calculation of pollution load and water environmental capacity, and to develop a relatively objective and highly operable scheme for evaluation and performance assessment of pollution reduction. Proposals are brought forth for consummate the technical flow and scheme for water pollution total volume control in China.

A Review of Researches on Effects of Biochars on Soil Microorganisms
RAO Shuang, LU Yang, HUANG Fei, CAI Yi-xia, CAI Kun-zheng
2016, 32(1):  53-59.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.010
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Biochar is a product of thermal degradation of organic materials in the absence of air(pyrolysis), and is distinguished from charcoal by its use as a soil amendment. In recent years, biochar has been attracting more and more attention worldwide because of its great potential for carbon sequestration, soil amelioration and higher crop yield. As a new type of soil amendment, biochar can increase soil organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity and soil water-holding capacity, which are beneficial to microbial activity. Moreover, biochar can also adsorb toxic allelopathic substances in soil and provide a favorable habitat for microorganism. But the effects depend on biochar properties, application rates, soil types and soil fertility. Effects of type of parent material and pyrolysis temperature on physicochemical properties of biochar and effects of the biochars on abundance, community structure and activity of the soil microbes in the soil were generalized. It is recommended that future studies should go further in depth on biochar properties, interaction between biochar and soil microbes and effects of biochar remedying the environment so as to evaluate objectively the effects of biochar amendment on soil microbes.

Productivity and N and P Nutrition of the Phragmites australis Community in Typical Wetlands in Tianjin and Their Relationships With Environmental Factors
CHEN Qing, LIU Dan, MA Cheng-cang, WANG Zhong-liang
2016, 32(1):  60-67.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.011
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The reed(Phragmites australis) wetlands in Tianjin region, generally being important staging areas for east Asian-Australian migratory shorebird, have some important ecological functions. In recent decades, due to rapid urbanization and population growth of the region, the surface waterbodies of Tianjin have been faced with problems like severe nitrogen(N) pollution and salinization. Based on investigation of aboveground biomass, plant morphology, plant nitrogen(N) and phosphorus(P) nutrition in Qilihai(QLH), Beidagang(BDG) and Dahuangpu(DHP) reed wetlands, their relationships with environment factors, like N and P nutrients and salinity were explored. Results show that(1) the biomass of reeds in the wetlands varied in the range of 978-1263 g·m-2, but not so significantly in aboveground biomass with sediment salinity and nitrogen content;(2) during the season(August) when the reeds peaked in biomass, the reeds in BDG was much lower than those in QLH and DHP in N content and N storage of P. australis, and the reeds in BDG were 12.48 in N:P ratio in leaf, indicating N was the limiting factor to plant growth, while the reeds in QLH and DHP were 14.89 and 15.72, respectively, indicating both N and P were limiting factors; and(3) the current environmental stresses significantly affected N and P nutrition of the reed shoots, like the increasing salinity of the sediment mud that lowered N and P content in the leaves of P. australis and the increasing N content in the sediment mud that linearly increased N content in the stems of P. australis; however, P content in the leaves and stems did not change much with any increase in P content in sediment mud. Although the surface water bodies of Tianjin are seriously polluted with N, and N rather than P is the major limiting factor to reed growth in the wetlands, the reed wetlands in the region still have some potential capacity for dissimilating environmental N pollutant

Spatial-Temporal Variation and Developing Tendency of Water Quality in Gucheng Lake and Inlets and Outlets of the Lake
GU Xian-kun, GU Xiao-hong, ZENG Qing-fei, MAO Zhi-gang, LI Xu-guang, WANG Yin-ping, WANG Wen-xia
2016, 32(1):  68-75.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.012
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Water samples were collected from Gucheng Lake and its inlets and outlets during the period between July 2012 and July 2013 for analysis of physic-chemical properties(including nutrient contents, BOD5, suspended organic matter) to explore spatio-temporal variation of the water quality of the lake and based on the monitoring data accumulated during the year of 2001-2012, developing tendency of the water quality in the lake in recent years was also analyzed with the aid of Software PWQTrend 2010. Results show that the water in the main area of the lake, Gangkou River and Qiqiao River was quite good in quality and got slightly eutrophied during the wet season, but the water in arms of the lake, in waste discharge outlet of aquatic breeding zones, and in Guanxi River and Xuhe River was quite high in pollution load and got moderately eutrophied during the wet season. However, during the dry season, the water in the whole area(the main area, arms, inlets and outlets of the lake) was moderately entrophied. Currently nitrogen and phosphorus are the main water pollutants in this study area, and come mainly from aquaculture. During the year of 2001-2012, the water in Guanxi River and the arms of the lake fell generally into Grade Ⅲ/Ⅳof the "National Standard for Surface Water Quality for Drinking Water", and the water in the main lake area did into Grade Ⅲ in quality. Total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) in the water of Guanxi River decreased significantly from 2001 to 2012, but TN in the arms of the lake and TN and TP in the main lake area increased significantly as affected by the economic development in Gaochun District, and some environmental protection measures. Therefore, rationally programming development scale and mode of the aquaculture in the lake and reducing waste discharge from various pollution sources are essential measures for sustainable development of Gucheng Lake.

Effects of Anthropogenic Disturbance on Community Structure and Species Diversity of a Secondary Machilus nanmu Forest in Xiejia Mountain, Northwest Sichuan
HAO Jian-feng, ZHU Yun-hang, WANG De-yi, QI Jin-qiu, LI Yan, YAO Yu, ZHANG Yi-bo, YAO Xiao-lan
2016, 32(1):  76-82.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.013
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Using the typical sample plot method, a comparative study was done of effects of anthropogenic disturbance varying in intensity, low, moderate and high, on community structure and species diversity of a secondary Machilus nanmu forest. Species richness index(D), Simpson dominance index(H'), Shannon-Wienner diversity index(H), and Pielou evenness index(JSW) of the forest were measured and used to evaluate comprehensively its level of species diversity. Results show that(1) plots of the forest under high anthropogenic disturbance were the lowest in number of species in various community level;(2) community structure varied within the forest with intensity of anthropogenic disturbance; and in the plot low in disturbance, trees, 4.0-8.0 cm in DBH(db,h), peaked in number, reaching 74, while in the plot moderate in disturbance, trees, 8.0-12.0 cm in db,h, did, reaching 62, and in the plot high in disturbance, trees, 12.0-16.0 cm in db,h, did, reaching 66;(3) with intensifying disturbance, species importance value mainly concentrated on a few species, such as Machilus nanmu, Pistacia chinensis, and Perilla frutescens; and(4) with intensifying disturbance the biodiversity indices of shrub and herbaceous communities rose first and then declined, regardless of disturbance degree, but in the plot moderate in disturbance, they increased obviously, while the index of the tree community decreased in all plots.

Dynamics of Pinus massoniana Population in Southern Suburbs of Nanjing and Application of Intraspecific Competition Model
CHENG Yin-rui, DU Dan-dan, ZHANG Xiao-ping
2016, 32(1):  83-89.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.014
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A static life chart of the Pinus massoniana population in the southern suburb of Nanjing was plotted through collecting statistics of ages of the trees in the population. Results show that the population is of a declining type in age structure and its survival curve is a convex one of Deevey-A type, while its mortality rate and disappearance rate varies similarly reaching as high as 0.625 and 0.981 in the eleventh age class(47-49 a) respectively. Calculation of the Hegyi competition index indicates that intraspecific competition is the main cause leading to decline of the population, with index amounting to 85.8% of the total competition index. The average intraspecific single-tree competition index of the population is 1.71, while its interspecific competition amounts only to 14.2% of the total. SPSS nonlinear regression shows that LIN Zhenshan's intraspecific competition model can be used to fit the declining tendency of the P. massoniana population, with high goodness and determination coefficient being 0.759. The inherent natality of the P. massoniana population is 0.105, and the highest environmental capacity for P. massoniana in this area is 31(400 m2)-1. Model stability analysis indicates that though the P. massoniana population in the southern suburb of Nanjing is declining, it won't extinct in this area, and will remain to be the dominant species in the community for a long time in future, however, its population density will keep on declining and level off at 9.396(400 m2)-1.

Wintering Behavioral Features and Niche Partition of Two Species of Anseriformes Birds(Anser cygnoide and Anser albifrons) at Nanji Wetland National Nature Reserve, Poyang Lake
GUO Hong, SHAO Ming-qin, HU Bin-hua, PANG Jia-peng, YU Guan-jun
2016, 32(1):  90-95.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.015
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During the period from December 2014 to March 2015, Swan geese Anser cygnoide and white-fronted geese Anser albifrons in Nanji Wetland National Nature Reserve, Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province were studied for their behavior patterns and habitat preferences. Results show that the two species behaved quietly, devoting most of their times to resting and foraging. Swan geese seemed to spend more time in resting and hence less time in foraging than white-fronted geese. Swan geese foraged mainly during the period of 14:00-15:00 and rested mainly during the period of 13:00-14:00, while white-fronted geese fed mainly during the periods of 8:00-9:00, 12:00-13:00 and 16:00-17:00, and rested mainly during the periods of 10:00-11:00, 12:00-13:00 and 16:00-17:00. Their different timing of foraging and resting mitigates the competition for food resources between the two species of geese, thus allowing their sympatry. In terms of habitat preference in space, the niche breadth of swan geese for selection of habitat and offshore distance was higher than that of white-fronted geese. The two species of geese overlapped quite much in niche of offshore distance. Swan geese preferred shallow water and mudflat, while white-fronted geese did swampy meadows. Both species preferred to have their habitats 400-500 m away from the shore. The differentiation of the two species of geese in habitat selection helps avoid the competition caused by the high niche overlapping in offshore distance, thus favoring their sympatry. The preference of the two species of geese to have their habitats located 400-500 m offshore enables them to escape human disturbance and have enough food resources for survival.

Analysis and Evaluation of Heavy Metal and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediment of Lake Dishui
LI Juan-ying, SHI Wen-xuan, CUI Yu, LI Run-qi
2016, 32(1):  96-101.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.016
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In order to assess environmental impacts of the development of the Lingang area on water environment of Lake Dishui, samples were collected from the surface water layer and sediment of the lake for analysis of contents of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) with atomic absorption spectrophotometers(TAS990), flow injection two-channel atomic fluorescence spectrophotometers(AFS-9130) and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Single factor analysis, Hakanson potential risk assessment and principal component analysis were performed to assess pollution risks and analyze sources of the pollutants. Results show that Hg were the predominant pollutant in the surface water layer, while Cd and Hg were in the sediment; and a total of 16 species of PAHs were found, varying in the range from 66 to 269 ng·L-1 in content and dominated with lower molecular weight PAHs(2- and 3-ring PAHs) in the water of the surface water layer, and varying in the range from 46 to 54 ng·g-1(dry weight) and dominated with high molecular weight PAHs(4- and 6-ring PAHs) in the sediment. On the whole, heavy metals posed a very high ecological risk. Cu, Pb and Hg in the sediment came mainly from the tidal flat matrix and Cd possibly came from industrial activities and domestic sewage in the upper streams. The pollution of PAHs was very low, but carcinogenic PAHs made up a quite big proportion. And the pollutants in the sediment came mainly from the nature.

Diversification of Inocula and Its Effect on Biodegradation of Chemicals in Sewage Treatment Plant
LIN Chun-jun, ZHOU Lin-jun, LIU Ji-ning, YANG Qian, SHI Li-li
2016, 32(1):  102-109.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.017
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Biodegradation is a major means to eliminate chemicals in environment. Sources and bio-characteristics of inocula are the major factors affecting biodegradability of chemicals. Activated sludge and secondary effluent was collected from 6 sewage treatment plants in Guangzhou and Guiyang City and cultivated for isolation of biodegrading bacteria. A total of 64 and 52 strains of bacteria were isolated from the sludge and effluent collected in Guangzhou and Guiyang City, respectively, Aeromonas, Bacillus, and Enterobacter were common strains included in the two groups. Polymerase chain reaction analysis shows that 53-58 and 38-43 bands were detected in the sludge and effluent, respectively, collected from the three sewage treatment plants in Guangzhou City, and 29-42 and 30-42 bands in the sludge and effluent, respectively, collected from the three sewage treatment plants in Guiyang City. They were used as inocula for biodegradation of chemicals. Test of the inocula from 6 different sources biodegrading readily degradable naphthoic acid and hardly degradable 4-nitro benzyl chloride show that they were more or less the same in degrading effect, but they varied in effect of degrading moderately degradable biphenyl and 2,4-dichlorophenol,which displayed inhibitory effects on the inocula. All the findings show that biodegradation of the pollutants is positively related to diversity of the inocula.

Comprative Study on Effect of Dicyandiamide Inhibiting Nitrifcation in Fluvo-Aquic Soil and Lime Concretion Black Soil
CAO Hong-lei, YAN Ting-mei, QIAO Jun, ZHU Ning-yuan
2016, 32(1):  110-114.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.018
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A soil incubation experiment was carried out in a conditioned chamber to study effect of dicyandiamide(DCD) inhibiting nitrification in two main types of soils(fluvo-aquic soil and lime concretion black soil) in the Huaihe River Basin. The process of urea conversion was monitored through analyzing changes in relative concentration of NH4+-N and NO3--N and changes in inhibition strength of DCD with dosage of the habitator used were illuminated through calculating nitrification inhibition rates. Then optimal DCD dosages were figured out for different soils. Results indicate that in both soils DCD inhibited nitrification effectively, and within the range of DCD dosages(2%-10%) set for the incubation experiment, the effect increased with rising DCD dosage. In the fluvo-aquic soil, the nitrification inhibition rate reached as high as 58.9%, while in the lime concretion black soil, it was much lower, being 27.4% only, and the difference between the two soil was not so significant when the DCD dosage was 8%(P<0.05). In the fluvo-aquic soil, the concentration of NH4+-N decreased to 14.4 mg·kg-1 after 42 days of incubation, whereas in the lime concretion black soil the concentration of NH4+-N dropped drastically after 7 days of incubation, and became almost undetetable after 21 days. These findings indicate that DCD applied in combination with urea can prolong effect of the fertilizer in fluvo-aquic soil, but the effect is not so high in lime concretion black soil.

Effects of Tartaric Acid, Citric Acid and Malic Acid Removing Lanthanum From Polluted Soils
LIANG Jun-jie, ZHANG Shi-rong, LIAO Cheng-yang, XIAO Luo-yi, WANG Gui-yin
2016, 32(1):  115-119.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.019
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Effects of tartaric acid, citric acid and malic acid removing lanthanum(La) from polluted soils, relative to concentration of the leachate, duration of leaching and soil pH were investigated through a leaching experiment. Results show that in the vibrating leaching experiment constant in condition(25℃ and 200 r·min-1), La removal increased with rising concentration of any one of the three organic acids, increased and then leveled off with the experiment going on and rose and fell with rising soil pH. It was found that for the three organic acids, the optimal concentration, leaching time and pH was 0.01 g·mL-1, 4 h and 5.0, respectively, in the experiment of removing La. Under such conditions, La removal rate of tartaric acid, citric acid and malic acid reached 57.13%, 62.32% and 54.86%, respectively, in the soil being 300 mg·kg-1 in La concentration, 74.39%, 77.94% and 72.75%, respectively, in the soil being 2500 mg·kg-1 in La concentration, and 17.8%, 23.7% and 24.3%, respectively, in the soil being 463.6 mg·kg-1 in La concentration in a mine area. Taking into account comprehensively La removing efficiency and cost, citric acid should be cited as the optimal leaching agent.

Bioavailability of Mercury to Earthworm(Pheretima guillemi) in Soil of the Wanshan Mining District
ZHAO Jie, LI Cheng-cheng, YANG Zhou-sheng, DANG Fei, ZHOU Dong-mei
2016, 32(1):  120-125.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.020
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Earthworms(Pheretima guillemi) were used as subject in an exposure experiment in mercury contaminated paddy soil, with inorganic mercury(IHg) ranging from 0.14-76 mg·kg-1 and methylmercury(MeHg), from 0.65-3.8μg·kg-1, in a mining area of Wanshan, Guizhou Province. Substantial IHg and MeHg bioaccumulation, i.e., 0.20-10.20 mg·kg-1 and 7.2-47.8μg·kg-1,were observed in earthworms after twenty-one days of exposure. Obviously, the bioaccumulation factor(BAFs) for MeHg(5.37-17.55) was 9.9-75 fold higher than that for IHg(0.14-1.14), which indicates that MeHg is much higher in bioavailability than IHg and possess potential biomagnification effect. Analysis of forms of Hg in earthworms reveals that MeHg contributed 0.26%-4.23% of the total mercury in the earthworm, while it did only < 0.1% in the soil. With rising Hg concentration in the soil, MeHg and IHg both increased in the earthworms. MeHg and IHg BAFs were little influenced by soil mercury concentrations, although the proportion of MeHg in earthworm tended to decrease with increasing MeHg concentration in the soil. Furthermore, IHg content in the earthworms displayed an apparent linear relationship with soil mercury concentration, explaining 94% of the variation of IHg in the earthworms. Yet no significant relationship was observed for MeHg. After a comprehensive review of relevant literature and data, it was found that soil inorganic mercury concentration may serve as an indicator for bio-accumulation of IHg in earthworms. Nevertheless, although mercury in the mining-area is thought to be "inert Hg", this study demonstrated that it's still quite highly bioavailable to earthworms, and may pose a potential ecological risk to predators of earthworms in the terrestrial environment.

Properties of Earthworm Digested Sewage Sludge and Effects of the Sludge on Growth of Coleus blumei
HUO Qing-lin, XU Xiao-xun, ZHANG Shi-rong, DENG Qian-xi, ZHANG Chi-qiang, DENG Yu-lan, DONG Yuan-yuan
2016, 32(1):  126-132.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.021
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A pot experiment was carried out using earthworm(Pheretima) digested sewage sludge as ingredient mixed with soil at different ratios to form culture medium for growth of Coleus blumei to explore changes in properties of the sewage sludge after digestion by earthworms and effect of the use of the earthworm digested sewage sludge at different rates on growth of C. blumei. Results show that pH, water content, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, alkalyzable N, readily available phosphorus, readily available potassium and organic matter were lower in the digested sludge than in untreated sludge, and wet bulk density of the digested sludge was 38.89% lower, while porosity was 93.91% higher, which indicates that earthworm digestion improves properties of the sludge as culture medium. Eearthworms may bio-accumulate heavy metals from sewage sludge. Digestion lowered the content of Pb, As, Hg and Zn, but raised that of Cu and Cd in the sludge, making it up to the criteria for neutral and alkaline soils of GB 4284-84"Standards for Control of Pollutants in Sludge for Agricultural Use". In the culture medium soil enzyme activity increased with rising rate of digested sludge used, and moreover, the plants growing in the medium mixed with digested sludge are much better than those growing in untreated sludge and in CK(100% soil) in growth morphology and physiological property, which indicates that 100% earthworm digested sludge can be used as very good medium for cultivation of C. blumei.

Emergy Analysis of Agriculture-Livestock-Fisheries Compound Ecological Breeding System
MENG Xiang-hai, ZHOU Hai-chuan, ZHANG Yu, WANG Yu-bo, MENG Tao, ZHANG Jun-biao
2016, 32(1):  133-142.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.022
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Ecological breeding is an important way to alleviate pollution from livestock and poultry breeding. Taking the Wuhan Yinhe Pig Farm as an example, the ecological breeding system of this Pig Farm was compared with the pig-only breeding system which used to be in operation before, and evaluated with the emergy analysis method. It was found that the former was much superior to the latter in minimization of resource consumption and environmental loading and in production efficiency. In terms of minimization of resource consumption, the former was 1.77% in emergy self-sufficiency rate, slightly higher than the latter(0.27%), the former was 98.09% in purchased-emergy rate, slightly lower than the latter(99.74%), the former was 5.69% in feedback-emergy rate, higher than the latter(0.00%) and the former was 5.80% in waste recycling rate, higher than the latter(0.00%). In terms of environmental loading, the ecological breeding system was 85.72% in environmental loading rate, lower than the pig-only breeding system(116.04%), and the former was 56.93% in system input renewal rate, higher than the latter(50.09%). And in terms of production efficiency, the former was 2.07 in net-emergy output rate, slightly higher than the latter(1.93). Moreover, the ecological breeding system was significantly higher in economic benefit than the pig-only breeding system.

Reassessment of the Studies on Biodiversity Valuation: Inspired by Meta-Analysis
ZHOU Jing-bo, WU Jian, YU Ze
2016, 32(1):  143-149.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.023
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Although large volumes of empirical studies on assessment of biodiversity valuation have been and are being carried out both at home and abroad, results of the assessments that so far have been done vary quite sharply, thus it is more difficult to use results of the assessments in policy-making on biodiversity conservation and in implementation of the policies. The meta-regression technique has been used for reexamining the factors that determine the study-to-study variance and exploring the variables that explain the variation based on the findings of the researches at home and abroad on biodiversity valuation. It has been found that the estimated effect-size of biodiversity valuation is significantly related to type of value, valuation method, time of the study conducted, economic or income level, as well as type of the publication, while the research scales and sources of literature did not make much difference. It is suggested that while making use of research findings available in assessing biodiversity valuation, it is essential to pay attention to source of the deviation of the assessment using meta analysis, and that in view of the fact that no much difference is found between the researches at home and abroad, it is advisable to use findings of the researches abroad as reference in unfolding researches on assessment of independent valuation.

Application of NMDS to Analysis of Phytoplankton Community: A Case Study of Qinshui River
DENG Jian-ming, TANG Xiang-ming, SHAO Ke-qiang, FEI Lei, QI Zhi-fei, PAN Hui, WU Cheng-zhi
2016, 32(1):  150-156.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.024
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Ordination has been widely used in analyzing bio-community dynamics. Based on the survey data of Qinshui River, the non-metric multidimensional scaling(NMDS) method was used in analyzing phytoplankton community dynamics and its driving factors. BIO-CORDs were laid out in the Qinshui River in June, 2014, in order to intercept surface runoff and various pollutants therein flowing into Lake Taihu. Water quality was monitored simultaneously during the period from June to December, 2014. The monitoring data were cited in exploring applicability of the NMDS to analysis of phytoplankton community structure. Results of the analysis show that at the initial stage of the BIO-CORD operation TN and TP dropped significantly in concentration(P<0.01). However, at the late stage, the effect of BIO-CORD was not so significant. Results of NMDS show that the phytoplankton community in the water treated with BIO-CORD did not vary much from the control throughout the period, except for June and October, which indicates that varying temperature due to season alternation is the key factor that triggers the succession of phytoplankton community. All the findings in this experiment also illustrate that NMDS is a useful tool in analyzing phytoplankton community.

Two-Dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy and Principal Components Analysis of Se-Treated Astragalus sinicus
YUAN Ju-hong, HU Mian-hao
2016, 32(1):  157-167.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.025
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Changes in material compositions of the shoots and roots of Astragalus sinicus treated with different concentration of selenium(Se)(0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg·L-1) were analyzed, using the fourier transform infrared spectrometry, two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy and principal components analysis, in order to investigate variation of the chemical composition of A. sinicus in spectroscopy and microscopic dynamics relative to concentration of Se in treatment. Results show that the shoots and roots of A. sinicus did not change much in shape of their Se absorption peaks, but did quite obviously in absorbence, which indicates that concentration of Se did not affect much chemical composition of the plant, but did its content in the plant; The -OH, C-OH and C=O group absorption peaks in the roots and the C=O, -OH and -COO group absorption peaks in the shoots of the plant moved in location, indicating that concentration of Se in the soil had a significant effect on these groups in the plant, which shows that they may be closely related to the absorption, complexation, and transportation of Se in the plant. Within the band of 890-1750 cm-1these groups in A. sinicus displayed a strong synergic effects or a strong interaction and varied sharply in two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy, which indicates that the two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy provides richer information about their structures, improves resolution of the spectra and captures dynamic changes in material system and molecular structure with changing Se concentration, and further on providing the study on mechanisms of plants tolerating heavy metal stress with an effective tool.

Effects of Rice-Straw-Derived Biochar on Adsorbing and Slow-Releasing of Metolachlor
GE Chao-chao, GUO Xuan, LI Jian-fa, LÜ Jin-hong, LIU Sen, XU Hai-xia
2016, 32(1):  168-172.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2016.01.026
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Aiming at controlling herbicide pollution of the environment, biochars were prepared out of rice straw through oxygen-limited pyrolysis at low temperatures(200 and 350℃), and their effects of adsorbing and slow-releasing herbicide metolachlor were investigated. Results show that the biochar prepared at temperature of 350℃(D350) was 23.2 m2·g-1 in specific surface area and hence much higher than rice straw in metolachlor sorption capacity, and close to the biochar prepared at temperature of 200℃(D200). But, biochar D350 showed a higher surface adsorption capacity to metolachlor and a higher desorption hysteresis index(5.35) than D200 did(2.07), indicating that granular preparation of biochar can be used as sustained releaser of metolachlor, with parameter nr of its in-water release kinetic model being close to that(0.50) of the Fickian diffusion model, and the time it took to release 50% of adsorbed metolachlor(t50) is positively related to the desorption hysteresis index.