Table of Content

Volume 33 Issue 6
25 June 2017
Extreme Change in Temperature of West Inner Mongolia in Recent 60 Years
GUO Nan, SHAO Tian-jie, ZHAO Jing-bo
2017, 33(6):  481-490.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2017.06.001
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The daily highest and lowest temperature data accumulated during the period from 1958 to 2014 in the 3 meteorological stations in the western region of Inner Mongolia were cited for analysis of 10 extreme temperature indices, using the linear trend method, temperature departure and cumulative anormalies method, Mann-Kendall test, principal component analysis, and Morlet plural wavelet. Results show that:(1) Six of the 10 extreme temperature indices, i. e. annual extreme highest (lowest) temperature, warm day, warm night, summer day and hot night, displayed rising trends, while the other four, i. e., cold day, cold night, freezing day and frosting day, did declining trends; (2) Five indices in the selected study area all exhibited a cycle of 7 and 17 a or so, which reflects that the extreme weather in the region followed a certain rule of variation; (3) Principal component analysis shows that variance contribution rate of the primary principal components reached 53.57%, and the indices, high in load included warm night, hot night and frosting day, which indicates that the three indices play important roles in overall climate change in the region; And (4) Saltation analysis shows that the abrupt changes in the index of extreme value occurred around 1980, while those of relative indices did basically during the period from the 1980s to the end of the 1990s, and those of the absolute indices did mainly in 1987. Extreme temperature changes would bring about droughts to the region and cause desertification of grasslands.

Perception of Climate Change of the Residents at Various Elevations in the Zayu River Valley in Southeast Tibet
HOU Lei, ZHOU Yao-zhi, REN Yi-hua
2017, 33(6):  491-498.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2017.06.002
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A survey was performed on perception of climate change of residents living in three villages situated at various elevations, 3 313.5, 2 891.1 and 2 476.4 m, separately in the Zayu River Valley, Southeast Tibet by means of questionnaires. Based on the returned questionnaires from 268 residents analysis was done of relationship between the perception of the residents and the elevation they live at. Results show that about 91.7%, 88.9% and 97.7% of the residents, respectively, living in the villages at 3 313.5, 2 891.1 and 2 476.4 m in elevation hold that the local climate has changed; about 75.0%, 100% and 48.3% think that summer is getting warmer; and 41.7%, 100% and 49.4% believe that winter is becoming colder. However, still a number of residents do not have much perception of the change. With decreasing altitude, more and more of the residents, or 50.0%, 56.5% and 61.4%, hold that the climate in past time was better than the current one; about 8.3%, 13.6% and 45.5% think glaciers expand in area; about 46.7%, 56.0% and 79.1% believe that the flow in rivers increases in volume; and more and more of the residents or about 33.3%, 58.3% and 72.7% complain that crop pests occur more and more frequently. Proportion of the residents who hold that the climate in past time being better than the current one is negatively related to elevation (P<0.05). Besides, about 75.0%, 74.1% and 72.7% of the residents in the villages hold that the climate changes affects their agricultural production and life as well. And about 83.3%, 100% and 90.9% of the residents admit that personal experience is the main pathway of their perception of climate change. The local governments should take appropriate actions, like propaganda and guidance, to help the local residents adapt to the climate change.

Perception of Scale and Risk of Livestock Rearing and Its Impact on Perception of Epidemic Prevention Arrangement of Broiler Farms: Based on Survey of 331 Broiler Farm Households
HUANG Ze-ying, WANG Ji-min
2017, 33(6):  499-508.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2017.06.003
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Major animal epidemics have been impeding development of the livestock and poultry industries in China. Rational arrangement of epidemic prevention of animal farms ensures biosafety in construction of functional zone and construction of ancillary service. It is worth discussing whether scaled livestock farms' and farm households' cognition of the risk of animal epidemics would promote rational arrangement of epidemic prevention of the farms. The six mandatory requirements specified in the "Procedure for Inspecting Animal Epidemic Prevention Conditions" for arrangement of epidemic prevention were cited as framework for analysis of the data collected during the survey of a total of 331 broiler farms in six provinces. First of all, poisson regression was performed to determine factors affecting the number of requirements for farmers to lay out epidemic prevention arrangement, and then Probit model was applied to analyze factors affecting farmers' behaviors of overall epidemic prevention arrangement. Results show that increasing of the scale of farms may significantly increase the number of requirements and overall epidemic prevention arrangement. And depth of the cognition of animal epidemic risks is significantly and positively related to the number of requirements for epidemics prevention arrangement, but not much related to the overall epidemics prevention arrangement. Compared with the cognition of the risks, scale of the farms could affect more the standard epidemics prevention arrangement.

Prediction of Water Quality in Rivers in Agricultural Regions Typical of Subtropics in China Using Multivariate Linear Regression Model
GONG Dian-lin, HONG Xi, ZENG Guan-jun, WANG Yi, ZUO Shuang-miao, LIU Xin-liang, WU Jin-shui
2017, 33(6):  509-518.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2017.06.004
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Knowledge about relationships of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in river water with landscape pattern is the premise of scientific management of catchment water environment. Shiyan River Catchment, in Changsha County, Hunan Province was selected as the object and Pearson correlation analysis, variation partitioning analysis, and multivariable linear regression analysis were applied to the exploration of effects of land use on N and P concentrations in river water at the catchment outlets and development of a model for predicting quality of the river water. Results show that 1) the water in the outlets has long been ruled into the category of Grade V minus in quality, as specified in the National Standard for Surface Water Quality (GB 3838-2002), with the concentration of ammonium-N (NH4+-N), nitrate-N (NO3--N), total-N (TN), dissolved-P (DP), and total-P (TP) varying in the range of 5.67-22.46, 0.76-2.85, 13.41-45.55, 0.86-5.00, and 1.99-9.94 mg·L-1, respectively; 2) N and P concentrations in the river water at the outlets of the catchment were significantly related to land use, landscape, population and livestock density (P<0.05), significantly and positively to proportion of forest land in area, and livestock density, and significantly and negatively to proportions of farmland and residential settlement in area, and population density. Besides they were also significantly and positively related to landscape maximum plaque index (LPI), and negatively to landscape shape index (LSI); 3) N and P concentrations in the river water could be predicted through analysis of land use patterns (farmland, residential area, tea garden, etc.) and landscape pattern indices[patch density (PD), LPI, LSI, contagion index(CONTAG), and landscape segmentation index (DIVISION)], using the multiple linear regression model (calibrated R2:0.132-0.320). The model worked particularly well for predicting NO3--N concentration in the river water. All the findings may serve as an important scientific basis for protection of the water environment and rational programming, utilization and management of the landscapes in agricultural catchments in the subtropical hilly regions of China.

Nutrients Accumulation of Ditch Sediments Under Different Planting Patterns in the Chaihe Catchment
WU Xiao-ni, FU Deng-gao, DUAN Chang-qun
2017, 33(6):  519-524.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2017.06.005
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The effect of land use, ditch vegetation and water condition on nutrients accumulation of ditch sediments under different planting patterns in the Chaihe Catchment was analyzed through in situ sampling of surface waters and sediments. The results showed that the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, and total phosphorus in ditch sediments followed the order:greenhouse land > vegetable land > corn field, suggesting that the land use and management is the main factor influencing nutrients accumulation of ditch sediments. The changes of ditch vegetation and water condition led to the nutrients difference of ditch sediments in the early and late rainy season. In addition, the long-term accumulation of nutrients in ditch sediments will consequently bring potential threats to the stability of the ditch wetland ecosystem on removing nonpoint source pollutants. Based on the above results, the optimization of agriculture soil planting structure and management should be the most important content in the control of agricultural nonpoint source pollutants.

Quantitative Evaluation of Eco-Environment Quality of the Terrestrial Ecological Red Line Area in Wuzhong District, Suzhou City
JIA You-yu, LI Hui, WANG Zhao-qi, DU Xiao-long, YANG Yue, LI Jian-long
2017, 33(6):  525-532.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2017.06.006
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In order to characterize spatial and temporal variation of the eco-environment in quality of the terrestrial ecological red line areas in Wuzhong District, Suzhou City, four indices were chosen, i. e. primary productivity, land surface temperature, land exposure degree and vegetation coverage of the area during the time-frames from July to August in the years of 2000-2015 when the vegetation grew optimally, for the four indices may well reflect eco-environment quality of the area; spatial principal component analysis method was used to build up an eco-environment aggregate index (Ef); co-environmental quality was divided into five grades (Ⅰ-Ⅴ), slope analysis and F significance test of Ef was performed; and slope-directive variances of monthly mean ecological factor (Ef) and ecological factor variation rate (ΔEf) was explored. Results show that during the period 2000-2015, ΔEf of the ecological red line areas varied between -0.08 and 0.06, and stayed below zero in about 43% of the areas and beyond zero in about 57%. The eco-environment quality on the whole was on a slowly rising trend, lingering in Grade Ⅱ with Ef being 0.700±0.001. Grading of the red line areas in terms of eco-environment quality shows that 3 in Grade Ⅰ, 7 in Grade Ⅱ, 1 in Grade Ⅳ and 1 in Grade Ⅴ. All the findings in this study may serve as important statistical supports and scientific evidence for protection of the ecological red line areas at Wuzhong District, Suzhou City, and contribute new thoughts and solutions to dynamic monitoring and management assessment of the ecological red line areas.

PLFA Fingerprint of Red Paddy Soils as Affected by Fertilization Pattern and Groundwater Table
ZHANG Yi-fei, XU Ting-ting, HAN Cheng, DENG Huan, YIN Li-chu, ZHONG Wen-hui
2017, 33(6):  533-538.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2017.06.007
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Soil microbial community is an important indicator for assessing changes in soil quality, fertility and soil environment. Fertilization and groundwater table are two factors that may affect soil fertility and micro-environment. However, so far little has been reported on influence of groundwater table on soil microbial community, especially the joint effects of fertilization and groundwater table on soil microbial community. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis was conducted to evaluate impacts of fertilization and groundwater table on the soil microbial community in a red soil rice paddy. Results show that groundwater table significantly influenced soil pH, Eh,p (oxido-reduction potential in drained soil) and NO3- content, while soil fertilization did significantly soil Eh,y (oxido-reduction potential in flooded soil), Eh,p, total organic carbon, total N and available K contents. Besides, groundwater table significantly affected contents of total PLFA, bacterial PLFA, and Gram-positive (G+) bacterial PLFA and G+ PLFA/G- PLFA ratio while fertilization did significantly content of Gram-negative (G-) bacterial PLFA contents and G+ PLFA/G- PLFA ratio of the soil microbial community. Stepwise regression analysis shows that soil pH and total nitrogen content significantly affected actinomycete PLFA content, and soil pH did significantly contents of G+ bacterial PLFA, aerobic and anaerobic bacterial PLFA, too; soil Eh,y did significantly fungal to bacterial PLFA ratio; and contents of NO3--N and total K nitrogen did significantly G+ PLFA/G- PLFA ratio. PCA analysis shows that the environmental factors significantly affected soil microbial structure, total K, pH and Eh,y of the soils under long-term fertilization and varying groundwater table, thus making Treatment LNOM different from the other treatments, while NO3--N, total N and total P contents were the important factors making Treatments HNOM, HHOM, LCF, HCF and LHOM different from each other in microbial community. Obviously long-term fertilization and groundwater table significantly affect physiochemical properties and soil microbial community in the soil.

Identification on Preponderant Algae of Cyanobacteria Bloom and Geosmin Odor Source of Wuhan Jiqidangzi Lake
WAN Hong, XU Wan-wan
2017, 33(6):  539-545.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2017.06.008
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Research indicates cyanobacteria blooms not only endanger water quality,but also produce neurotoxins and odorous matter. In order to scientifically predict water bloom, and then provide fundamental knowledge on the prevention and control of water bloom and odor, preponderant algae species of cyanobacteria bloom and geosmin odor source multiplied in early spring were identified by means of PCR amplification and gene sequencing technology. The effects of different temperature and light intensity on preponderant algae biomass and geosimin odor yield were also measured respectively under laboratory conditions. The preponderant algae were cultured at three temperatures (16, 26 and 36℃) and three light intensities[16, 26, 36 μmol·m-2·s-1]. The preponderant algae of cyanobacteria bloom was identified as Aphanizomenon gracile, and the strong smell of the eutrophicated lake might come from the geosmin of Aphanizomenon gracile. Laboratory simulation study indicate that the content of Aphanizomenon gracile chlorophyll-a and the yield of geosmin odor became higher at low temperature and high light intensity, indicating low temperature and strong light environment were favorable growth conditions. It was found that the effect of temperature was more significant than light intensity on Aphanizomenon gracile, and the highest yield of the geosmin odor was 6 555 ng·mg-1 under favorable conditions.

Nutrient Assimilating Effects of Zizania latifolia-Duck Symbiotic Artificial Wetland on Eutrophied Water From Fishing Ponds
ZHANG Jia-hong, WANG Gui-liang, XU Rong, KOU Xiang-ming, HAN Guang-ming, WANG Shou-hong, ZHU Ling-yu, BI Jian-hua, JIN Yin-gen
2017, 33(6):  546-554.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2017.06.009
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A field experiment consisting of four treatments:Treatment DF0(artificial wetland with monoculture of wild rice stem or Zizania latifolia without fertilization), Treatment DFC(artificial wetland with monoculture of wild rice stem with conventional fertilization), Treatment GFC(artificial wetland with wild rice stem-duck symbiosis and conventional fertilization), and Treatment GF50%C(artificial wetland with wild rice stem-duck symbiosis and 50% of the conventional fertilization), was laid out and carried out at the Aquatic Vegetable Production Base in Xiaoji Town of Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. The water used in the experiment was diverted from fish ponds near the test area. Dynamics of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the surface water and organic matter and available nutrients in the soil of the treatments were analyzed. Results show that in Treatment DF0, seven days after the eutrophied water was diverted from the fish ponds, the concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fell to 21.27% and 15.58% of the peak value, respectively. For treatments with normal fertilizeration (DFC), seven days after fertilization the concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in surface water fell down to 8.21% and 6.51% of their peak value, respectively. In Treatment GF50%C, about 82.81% and 84.25%, respectively, of the N and P in the eutrophic water was removed, and there was no significant difference found between Treatment GF50%C and Treatment DFC in N and P removal rate. Compared with Treatment DFC, Treatment GF50%C not only maintained the yield of wild rice stem and the economic benefits of the system at the same level, but also improved the contents of soil organic matter and available nutrients. In Treatment GFC and Treatment GF50%C about 4 500 m3·hm-2 of eutrophied water from the fish ponds were used to sustain growth of wild rice stem, containing N and P, equal to 83.55 kg urea and 46.50 kg superphosphate. Consequently, Treatment GF50%C can not only purify the eutrophied water effectively by removing N and P through harvesting of the crop, but also improve soil quality and economic benefits.

Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles on Maize Growth and Fe-Uptake
CAO Ji-ling, FENG You-zhi, LIN Xian-gui
2017, 33(6):  555-563.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2017.06.010
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A greenhouse pot experiment was established to investigate the effects of Glomus caledonium on maize (Zea mays) plants under differential levels (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg·kg-1) of nano-iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) artificially added soils. The results indicate that the high (10.0 mg·kg-1) application of nano-Fe3O4 significantly decreased (P<0.05) plant biomass of maize, root mycorrhizal colonization rate and plant N, P, Ca, Zn concentration, but significantly increased (P<0.05) shoot Fe concentration. Compared to the corresponding non-AM fungi-inoculated treatment, inoculating Glomus caledonium significantly increased (P<0.05) root Fe concentration and individual Fe acquisition of maize plants, but significantly decreased (P<0.05) shoot Fe concentration, that eventually significantly increased (P<0.05) plant biomass of maize with the high nano-Fe3O4 applied treatment. These results indicate that AM fungi could alleviate the toxicity of nano-Fe3O4 to plants by enhancing Fe partition in roots and reducing the translocation of Fe by maize plants.

Assessment of Quality of Soils Under Organic Farming in South China
WANG Lei, YANG Jing, XI Yun-guan, CHEN Qiu-hui, YIN Kui-yang, LI Gang, ZHANG Chi, TIAN Wei, ZHANG Hong-qi, LI Xu, ZHANG Ji-bing, XIAO Xing-ji
2017, 33(6):  564-570.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2017.06.011
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Little information is available as reference for assessment of effect of organic farming on soil quality with soils under conventional farming as control, although large volumes of reports demonstrate that organic farming can ameliorate degraded soils. Soil samples were collected from 14 farms (i. e. 7 organic farms and 7 neighbouring conventional farms) for analysis of soil physicochemical properties, i. e. bulk density, pH, organic matter, total N, total P, readily available P and readily available K, and biological properties as well, i. e. microbial biomass carbon, diversity and dominance of microbial communities, and population, diversity and dominance of nematodes. Statistics of the 13 indices was done for principal components analysis. Out of the 13, 6 (TN, pH, bulk density, microbial biomass carbon, and population and dominance of nematodes) were cited to form a minimum data set (MDS). Soil quality index (Is,q,6) based on MDS was in the range of 0.39-0.72 in the soils under organic farming and in the range of 0.18-0.54 in the soils under conventional farming. The soils under organic farming, except in one sampling site were all higher than those under conventional farming in Is,q,6. Based on the fact that the 6 indices in MDS, particularly dominancy of the nematode community, contributed 12.4%-21.8% to soil quality and that Is,q,13(SQI derived from the 13 soil property indices) is significantly related to Is,q,6(r=0.89, P<0.05), it is quite clear that MDS-based soil quality assessment is a workable and effective tool.

Activity of Estrogen and Contents of Typical Estrogenic Compounds in A2/O Treated Wastewater
YOU Meng, ZHANG Qiu-ya, WANG Xiao-chang, MA Xiao-yan
2017, 33(6):  571-576.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2017.06.012
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As endocrine disrupting chemicals in the water environment is low in concentration, difficult to remove and highly hazardous, it is essential to get a full grasp of how estrogen in wastewater varies with the process of treatment in activity and concentration. To that end, samples of wastewater were collected from an urban wastewater treatment installation for analysis of concentrations and activities of 4 kinds of steroid estrogens, using the high performance liquid chromatography-UV detector-fluorescence detector (HPLC-UV-FLD) and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) method, separately. Moreover, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to determine concentrations of E2 in the wastewater under treatment. Results show that among the four kinds of estrogens detected in the effluent, E1 was the highest in concentration, reaching 87.97 ng·L-1 and E2, the lowest being 5.50 ng·L-1, which indicates that the steroid estrogen removal rate varied in the range of 88.83%-95.69%. The A2/O system was found to be able to lower activity of the estrogens by 73.33%. However, the estrogens in the effluent were still quite active with EEQ being 1.92 ng·L-1. ELISA reveals that the concentration of E2 in the effluent varied in the range of 10.01-82.82 ng·L-1, which indicates that the removal rate of E2 was 88.23%. Obviously ELISA and YES are quite consistent in determination. Therefore, it could be concluded that ELISA could be a workable supplement to in vitro assays of estrogens.