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Volume 34 Issue 7
25 July 2018
Spatial Differentiation of Anhui Province Based on the Relationship Between Supply and Demand of Ecosystem Services
GU Kang-kang, YANG Qian-qian, CHENG Fan, CHU Jin-long, CHEN Xiao-hua
2018, 34(7):  577-583.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.001
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The spatial heterogeneity in the supply and demand of ecosystem services can lead to the unequilibrium in regional development. Based on the data of land use and nighttime light, taking the districts and counties in Anhui Province as the research units, the spatial heterogeneity characteristics of supply and demand relationship of ecosystem services in Anhui Province were revealed, and the types of management and control of each district and county were divided, and various types of national spatial development strategies were proposed. The results show that:(1) There are significant differences in land use types in various regions of Anhui Province, and the value of ecosystem service is in a state of high in the south and low in the north. (2) There is a significant difference in demand for ecosystem services among the districts and counties in Anhui Province. The demand for ecosystem services is high along the Yangtze River, middle Anhui and northern Anhui, while the demand in the western and southern regions of Anhui Province is relatively low. (3) The regional differences in supply and demand relationship of ecosystem services in Anhui Province are significant. (4) Based on the analysis of ecosystem service supply and demand, various districts and counties in Anhui Province are divided into four types of management and control:ecological coordination type, ecological control type, ecological rebuilding type, and ecological conservation type. The research results can provide a scientific basis for the allocation of ecological land and regional land resources planning in Anhui Province in the future.

Spatial and Temporal Changes of Vegetation Coverage and Influencing Factors in Hulun Buir Grassland During 2000-2016
LI Lin-ye, TIAN Mei-rong, LIANG Hui, CHEN Yan-mei, FENG Chao-yang, QU Kai-yue, QIAN Jin-ping
2018, 34(7):  584-591.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.002
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Reassessment of the relationship between the regional vegetation coverage and the climate change has been the focus of concern for vegetation response to climate change. The spatial and interannual dynamics of vegetation in Hulun Buir grassland from 2000 to 2016 were explored and its driving effects from the climate factors were discussed based on the vegetation index and pixel dichotomy model. It has been found that (1) The average vegetation coverage of Hulun Buir grassland was 0.51 during the period from 2000 to 2016, and the grassland was covered dominantly with medium and low vegetation coverage decreasd from east to west. (2) The vegetation coverage of the grassland declined from 2000 to 2016, and 52.79% of the grassland vegetation coverage tended to deteriorate mostly in the western part of Hailaer, Ewenki Banner and middle part of Xinbaerhu. By contrast, 47.21% of grassland tended to be covered more by vegetation coverage to in the western and eastern of Hulun Buir grassland, especially in western part of Xinbaerhu. (3) Spatially, Hulun Buir grassland degenerated from the middle east to the west. (4) The inter-annual changes of vegetation coverage was closely related to precipitation with the correlation coefficient of 0.17.

Effects of Plant Decomposition and Water Content on Phosphorus in Soils of Poyang Lake Wetland
BAI Xiu-ling, XIN Xing, LI Wen-li, WANG Jie-hua, NING Li-xin
2018, 34(7):  592-598.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.003
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The objectives of this study were to investigate the changes in phosphorus in soils of Poyang Lake wetland under the combined action of soil water content and decomposition of Carex cinerascens through field sampling and laboratory simulation experimental analysis. The forms of phosphorus were analyzed by SMT and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-NMR). The results show that the total phosphorus (TP) in soils of Poyang Lake wetland to be 531 mg·kg-1 and the inorganic phosphorus (IP) to be 305 mg·kg-1. The Ca-P was the main component of IP, and the organic phosphorus (OP) was 218 mg·kg-1, which mainly consisted of monoesters, diesters, and pyrophosphate. Affected by different soil water contents (dew dry, humidity, wet dry, rising water levels, and falling water levels), the changes of TP, IP, and Ca-P in 0-2 cm surface soils were similar and showed varying degrees of decline, and the maximum decrease was observed in the wet dry group. The changes in Fe/Al-P in the 0-2 cm wet dry group were similar to those in the dew dry group, which were lower than those of other culture groups; the content of OP in 0-2 cm soils did not change significantly with different culture groups. Under the decomposition of plants and soil water content, the content of TP, IP, OP, diester/monoester, and diester/pyrophosphate were significantly increased in >2-5 cm soil. However, the contents of TP, Fe/Al-P, and OP in 0-2 cm soil were significantly lower, and the decrease amplitude of OP (9.0%-15.2%) was much higher in other groups under the single factor of soil water content, indicating that the decomposition of plants increased the activity of soil microorganisms and increased the decomposition rate of OP in topsoil.

Characteristic of Soil P Availability in Reduced P-Input Rice-Wheat Cropping Rotation Paddy Soils
YUAN Jia-hui, WANG Yu, WANG Shen-qiang, ZHAO Pin-heng, WANG Hong-yan, CHEN Hao, ZHU Wen-bin
2018, 34(7):  599-605.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.004
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Chemical soil phosphorus (P) extraction has been widely used to characterize and understand changes in soil P fractions, however lacking adequately capture rhizosphere processes. Relying on two reduced P-input experimental stations in Taihu rice-wheat cropping rotation area, the biologically-based phosphorus (BBP) grading method was used to evaluate the availability and influencing factors of soil P during wheat-growing stage. The trial of long-term positioning P fertilizer reduction has been conducted for 7 years. The results show that, in Yixing Station, CaCl2-P in soil treated with P fertilization at wheat season only (PW) had no significant difference with soil treated at both rice and wheat seasons (PR+W), while Citrate-P and HCl-P as well as Enzyme-P under PW treatments were significantly low (P<0.05). As for Changshu Station, no significant differences were shown between three P-reducing treatments and PR+W; only Pzero treatment significantly reduced the concentration of soil HCl-P. Correlation coefficients between four BBP fractions and Olsen-P at two stations were different. Olsen-P was mainly from Citrate-P (R2=0.587, P<0.01), HCl-P (R2=0.587, P<0.01) and Enzyme-P (R2=0.531, P<0.01) in Yixing, while mainly from HCl-P (R2=0.386, P<0.05) and Citrate-P (R2=0.280, P<0.05) in Changshu. The concentration of four BBP fractions followed the order of HCl-P > Citrate-P>Enzyme-P > CaCl2-P. Furthermore, RDA showed that soil alkaline phosphatase (S-ALP) activity and pH were the dominant factors for the changes in soil P, and correlated with soil P fractions positively. These results may be helpful for understanding of the changes in soil P status while P-input was reducing.

Effects of Different Irrigation Pattern and Nitrogen Input Levels on Fruit Yield and N Use Efficiency of Greenhouse Cucumber in Early Spring
CAI Shu-mei, ZHANG Zhong-hua, XU Si-xin, ZHANG De-shan, CAO Liang-liang, GU Fu-jia, ZHU Hai-tao
2018, 34(7):  606-613.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.005
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Improper water and fertilizer management is a common restriction factor for the production of spring cucumber under protected cultivation. A field split plot experiment was conducted to study effects of irrigation mode and nitrogen fertilizer application rate on yield and N use efficiency of greenhouse cucumber in early spring, providing a theoretical foundation for integrated management of reasonable water and fertilizer application under protected cultivation. The results show that the integration of irrigation and fertilizer obviously promoted the growth of greenhouse cucumber and increased the yield and N use efficiency. Under the same nitrogen levels, drip fertigation increased stem diameter, plant height and leaf number of greenhouse cucumber by 5.8%, 8.5% and 14.0%, respectively. Compared with spray fertigation, drip fertigation significantly increased the weight of single fruit, the amount of dry matter, nitrogen accumulation and N use efficiency, while the influence on fruit longitudinal diameter and transverse diameter was comparative less. The aerial growth of greenhouse cucumber in early spring can be promoted by proper application amount of N fertilizer. Under the optimum nitrogen fertilizer application amount, fruit yield could grow up to 82 913.4 and 63 792.6 kg·hm-2 in the drip fertigation treatment (N basal application 245.0 kg·hm-2) and spray fertigation treatment (N basal application 418.8 kg·hm-2), respectively. However, excessive N fertilizer inhibited the growth of cucumber, reducing plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, weight of single fruit and fruit longitudinal diameter. Therefore, drip fertigation could synchronize nitrogen reducing application and water saving irrigation, improving cucumber yield and N use efficiency, and the optimum nitrogen amount was about 245.0 kg·hm-2.

Investigation on Animal Diversity in Different Paddy Fields With Organic Farming: A Case Study in Daizhuang of Jurong County, Jiangsu Province, China
WANG Lei, LI Gang, XI Yun-guan, CHEN Qiu-hui, LI Yan, TIAN Wei, ZHANG Chi, LI Peng, YANG Hao, ZHANG Ji-bing, XIAO Xing-ji
2018, 34(7):  614-621.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.006
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Information on the animal biodiversity in organic paddy fields is poorly understood and surprisingly obscure in China. A comparative filed study on the diversity and composition of animal community in 7-year, 9-year and 11-year organic and conventional rice fields was conducted. Animals observed via multiple field surveys belonged to Gastropoda, Oligocllaeta, Hirudinea, Insecta, Malacostraca, Branchiopoda, Arachnoidea, Amphibia, Pisces, and Mammalia (including 10 classes, 28 orders, 130 species) in organic paddy field. However, the animals observed in conventional paddy field belonged to only 8 classes, 13 orders, 27 species. Arthropods were the dominant species in all observed animal community. All observed arthropods belong to 4 classes, 15 orders, and 106 species (81.5% of total observed animal species) while other animals contained 6 classes, 13 orders, 24 species were identified in the organic paddy fields (18.5% of total observed animal species). Nevertheless, only 3 classes, 9 orders, 22 species (81.5% of total observed animal species) for arthropods whereas 5 classes, 4 orders, 5 species (18.5% of total observed animal species) for other animals were identified in the conventional paddy fields. The Margalef diversity and Pielou's evenness index of fishes, amphibians and arthropods were significantly (P< 0.01) higher in organic farms than that in conventional ones. Simpson diversity index of annelids, fishes and amphibians were significantly (P< 0.01) higher in the organic paddy fields than that in the conventional paddy fields. The results indicate that the aquatic ecosystem of organic paddy cultivation has higher ecological stability and environmental quality.

Study on Effects of Different Fertilization Regimes on Soil Microbial Community Based on MicroRespTM Method
WANG Fei, QIN Fang-jin, WANG Xian-ting, WENG Ying, LIN Hui
2018, 34(7):  622-629.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.007
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The response of soil microbial community is regarded as a sensitive indicator of soil quality changes. A 5-year located experiment was conducted to study the effects of different fertilization regimes on the soil microbial community structure and functional diversity, by using the MicroRespTM method. The results show that the application of organic fertilizer and biogas slurry at a reasonable rate could significantly promote the metabolic activity of soil microbial community and significantly affect the soil microbial community structure. Long-term application of organic fertilizer and biogas slurry at a high amount such as biogas slurry (HBS) treatment and organic fertilizer (HOM) treatment exhibited negative effects on the soil microbial community structure and functional diversity. Correlation analysis results further indicate that the metabolic activity of soil microbial community was highly correlated with the soil pH, the total phosphorus content and the Cu content, while the Cu content was the main influencing factor. Overall, organic fertilizer application could significantly improve soil nutrient content and lead to an accumulation of heavy metals in soil, thus contributing to the obvious changes in metabolic function of soil microbial community.

Accumulation of Mercury in Rice Grown in Pot Experimental Soils and Its Impact Factors
GAN Fang-qun, GUAN Bin, WANG Jian-guo, YI Mao-qi, YOU Xiao-hui, DING Cheng-cheng, HANG Xiao-shuai, LIANG Bin
2018, 34(7):  630-635.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.008
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Pot experiments were conducted to study the accumulation behaviors of mercury (Hg) in different mature rice tissues grown in the paddy soil from South Jiangsu Province, which was treated with exogenous inorganic Hg and rice straw incorporation. In addition, the impact factors of Hg accumulation in the rice grain were analyzed. The results show that exogenous Hg in soils significantly inhibited the growth of rice, with significant decrease in rice root and shoot biomass, as well as rice yield. The average rice root, shoot biomass, and rice yield were decreased by 35%, 24%, and 35%, respectively. The content of Hg in rice grain grown in the pot soil same as the field soil was lower than that of rice grain grown in the field soil, indicating that the Hg sources of rice in the paddy field were diverse, and the impacts of difference between the pot experiment and the field system also existed. The enrichment of Hg in mature rice tissues was increased obviously under the conditions of pot soils treated with exogenous Hg, and the average Hg content of rice grain, rice husk and straw were increased by 220.9, 39.5 and 97.8 μg·kg-1, respectively. In different pot soil, the impact of rice straw incorporation on the migration of exogenous Hg to various tissues of rice was distinct. Soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter (OM) and calcium carbonate can affect the accumulation of Hg in rice grown in soils treated with exogenous Hg. The ability of rice grain to enrich Hg was stronger than that of rice hull. The increasing rate of rice grain enrichment ability to Hg was higher than that of rice straw under the conditions of the experimental soil treated with exogenous Hg.

Effects of Crop-Straw Biochars on Immobilization of Cu2+ in an Oxisol Under Submerged Condition
ZHAO Zhen-jie, FANG Di, DONG Ying, XU Ren-kou, ZHOU Li-xiang, JIANG Jun
2018, 34(7):  636-642.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.009
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Crop-straw derived biochars inhibited the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in the upland cropping land due to complexation, precipitation, as well as increasing soil pH. However, information regarding the influence of biochar on heavy metal speciation in soils under submerged condition is limited. In the present study, the effect of the biochars on Cu speciation in an Oxisol was conducted under submerged condition. The biochars were derived from canola straw pyrolyzed at 400℃ and peanut straw at 300, 400 and 500℃, respectively. Soil was spiked with Cu(NO3)2 (5 mmol·kg-1) and glucose (20 g·kg-1), respectively, and the loading quantity of biochar is about 30 g·kg-1. The homogenized soil samples were incubated under inundation condition for 49 days. BCR sequential extraction method was used to investigate the dynamic changes of Cu2+ species during the incubation. Results show that addition of activated carbon and crop straw derived biochars significantly increased soil pH, decreased acid-soluble fraction of Cu2+ evidently, and the reducible and oxidizable fraction of Cu2+ showed reverse trends in the early stage of flooding. Whilst, the acid-soluble fraction of Cu2+ increased with the incubation time, mainly due to the decreasing soil pH, which suggested the inhibition function of biochars on Cu2+ mobility faded progressively. Moreover, organic acids produced by decomposition of organic matter in the biochar, lead to a decreasing soil pH, and consequently increased the mobility of Cu2+.

Adsorption of Pb in Solution By Modified Bean Cake Biochar
MENG Li-rong, YU Hao-dan, YANG Ting-ting, YIN Wei-qin, HOU Jian-hua, WANG Sheng-sen, WANG Xiao-zhi
2018, 34(7):  643-650.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.010
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In this study, bean cake derived biochar (SYB) was modified by potassium hydroxide (KOH) (SYBK) to improve sorptive removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions. Batch sorption experiments were carried out with different sorption time, initial sorbate concentrations and pH values. The pristine and Pb2+ spent sorbents were characterized with the field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface area and pore size analyzer (BET), X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results show that the SYBK has more abundant surface functional groups and higher specific surface area. Pb2+ adsorption data by SYB and SYBK were well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption model and the predicted maximum adsorption capacities were 711.0 and 293.0 mg·g-1 for SYBK and SYB, respectively. The XRD spectra of both spent sorbents revealed that Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 precipitate was formed after sorption reaction. Besides, large quantities of alkaline cations (e. g., Ca2+ and Mg2+) was released into solution after sorption. The results above can provide reference for preparation of biochar-based sorbents for Pb2+ removal from aqueous solutions.

Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Paddy Soils From Different Regions in China
LI Hui-lin, HE Yan, ZHANG Jing, WANG Lan, YANG Hong, PENG Zheng-song, LU Lu
2018, 34(7):  651-658.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.011
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to an important class of persistent organic contaminants ubiquitously found in soils. Their fate in soil varies depending on both soil properties and their chemical structure. It is therefore important to understand the factors that control PAHs biodegradation in different soil environments. A study was conducted on eight paddy soils which are geographically distributed in different region of China. Time-course laboratory incubation was employed coupled with GC-MS analysis to explore the effects of variable soil properties on PAHs degradation, and evaluate the correlation between them. It was found that the capacities of PAHs degradation of different paddy soils were as follows:Sichuan (calcareous purple soil) > Heilongjiang (black soil) > Chongqing (neutral purple soil) > Shanxi (cinnamon soil) > Beijing (fluvo-aquic soil) > Anhui(yellow-cinnamon soil) > Henan (fluvo-aquic soil) > Hunan (yellow earth). The degradability of three PAHs was as follow:phenanthrene > fluoranthene> benzo[a] anthracene. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of 16S rRNA genes and phenanthrene dioxygenase functional gene phnAc demonstrate that the abundance of bacteria and phnAc gene was significantly stimulated by the addition of PAHs in these soil except the soils from Sichuan and Chongqing. Redundancy analysis indicate that the degradation pattern of phenanthrene and fluoranthene was positively associated with the content of NH4+-N and soil organic matter significantly (P<0.05), and negatively correlated with soil pH and water content. The degradation of benzo[a] anthracene was not significantly correlated with all the environmental parameters in this study (P> 0.05). Overall, results show that the fate of PAHs varies in different paddy soils, and the application of nitrogen and organic fertilizers could potentially stimulate the PAHs degradation rate in soils. The results of the study could provide basic information for evaluating the mechanism of PAHs degradation in natural soils and developing remediation strategy in China paddy soils.

Characteristics and Source Apportionments of Carbonaceous Components in Atmospheric Fine Particles in Guangzhou
ZHANG Xiao-yu, ZHAO Xin, YING Rong-rong, JI Gui-xiang, HAN Cai-yun, KONG Ling-ya, FENG Yan-hong, SHAN Yan-hong, LIN Yu-suo
2018, 34(7):  659-666.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.012
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Daily PM2.5 samples were collected from January to November of 2015 in Guangzhou. Mass concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were determined by the means of thermal/optical reflection (TOR) methods. The results show that the annual average concentration of PM2.5 was (69.5±35.6) μg·m-3 which is two times that of secondary standard limits of the latest national standard GB 3095-2012 (Ambient Air Quality Standard)(35 μg·m-3), suggesting serious PM2.5 pollution in Guangzhou. The annual average concentrations of OC, EC, total carbonaceous aerosols were (8.31±4.53), (3.56±2.72), (16.85±9.60) μg·m-3, with their proportions of 13.2%, 5.9%, 27.0% to PM2.5 mass concentrations, respectively, indicating that carbonaceous species were important components in PM2.5. The differences of seasonal variation were observed between OC and EC. The OC highest concentration was observed in winter while EC highest concentration was in autumn. Poorer correlations and higher ratios of OC and EC indicated that the most serious secondary organic carbon (SOC) pollution was in winter. The SOC concentration in winter was 6.9 μg·m-3, accounting for 62.4% of OC concentration. Source apportionment results of principle component analysis (PCA) show that the sources of carbonaceous components were complex in winter and spring and the main sources were vehicle exhausts, coal combustion and biomass burning, while the dominated sources in summer were coal combustion and vehicle exhausts, and the dominated source in autumn was vehicle exhausts.

Review on the Closure Fees Withholding System of Hazardous Waste Landfill Site in Foreign Countries and Its Inspirations for China
XU Juan, JIANG Wen-bo, GUO Rui, ZHANG Jun, ZHENG Yang
2018, 34(7):  667-672.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.07.013
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In the 1980s, U. S., EU, Japan and other developed countries respectively established management systems of withholding decommission fund for hazardous wastes landfill sites. The experiences from developed countries show that the system can not only effectively ensured the financial sources for the closure and maintenance of decommissioned hazardous wastes landfill sites, but also successfully controll the long-term environmental risks. By studying the systems and experiences of developed countries, the paper systematically analyzed the management systems of withholding decommission fund for hazardous wastes landfill sites from the perspectives of laws and regulations, cost estimate method for the decommission fund and management systems etc.. Based on the analyses, the calculation method for the decommission fund for hazardous wastes landfill sites in China has been established and case analysis conducted. Recommendations for the improvement based on the development status of the management systems in this regard in China has been proposed:To incorporate the withholding plan into the permit management for hazardous wastes landfill sites to guarantee the implementation of decommission fund management; To conduct supervision and management based on the annual evaluation requirements for the standardized management of operators; The landfill sites operators should calculate decommission fund according to the calculation method, deposit the fund in the special account for management or transfer the fund to government designated institutions for management in the form of guaranty, and incorporate the fund into investment budget or operation costs; The landfill site operators should apply to the environment authority for decommission and get approval, then withdraw and use the decommission fund year by year based on the actual expenditure.

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2018, 34(7):  0-0. 
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