Table of Content

Volume 34 Issue 9
25 September 2018
The Assessment Method of Nitrate Nitrogen Leaching and Ammonia Volatilization of Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation in North China Plain Based on RZWQM Model
SHEN Shi-zhou, ZHANG Ke-qiang, WANG Feng, LAI Rui-te, YAN Qing, YANG Han-bo
2018, 34(9):  769-775.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.09.001
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Nitrogen loss through NO3--N leaching and NH3 volatilization are the two major ways in North China Plain. Direct monitoring of the mentioned nitrogen loss in farmland conditions is complicated due to laborious and expensive research work. To overcome these difficulties, it is imperative to develop a practical model for the appropriate estimation of nitrogen loss through leaching and volatilization. The model should estimate the nitrogen losses through each channel rapidly and be convenient for the management department. The model's basic mechanism should ascertain scientific and accurate relationship between quantity of actual nitrogen losses and soil properties. For these purposes, the model RZWQM was investigated. The mentioned model was found to be validated for wheat-corn crop rotation long-term field experiment in North China Plain. Through regression analysis, the model established a function between quantity of nitrogen loss and the amount of residual NO3--N in 0-1 m soil profile layer. Research literature data regarding North China Plain validated the function relation accuracy of the model under investigated, which was observed 70.9% and 71.2%. So, it is suggested that the RZWQM model can be used practically by management department to estimate and control non-point source pollution in North China Plain.

Researches on Monitoring Indicators Screening of Intensive Plant Source Pollution in the Plain Area of the Yangtze River Delta
XIE Wen-ming, MIN Ju, SHI Wei-ming
2018, 34(9):  776-781.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.09.002
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The amount of non-point source pollution from intensive cropping with different patterns (rice, wheat and greenhouse vegetable) were measured by three successive years' field experiments in typical area of Yangtze River Delta. The field experiments results illustrated the losses of ammonia volatilization, surface runoff and leaching were accounted for 15.4%, 5.3% and 1.8% of the applied nitrogen in the rice season and the total loss percentage was about 22.5%. In the wheat season, the losses of ammonia volatilization, surface runoff and leaching were responsible for 3.3%, 5.1% and 3.0% of the applied nitrogen, respectively and the total loss percentage was about 11.4%. By the greenhouse vegetable farming, the losses of ammonia volatilization, surface runoff and leaching were accounted for 0.1%, 3.0% and 18.9% of the applied nitrogen and the total loss percentage was about 22.0%. Based on the field experiments' results, several monitoring indicators were screened to forecast the non-point source pollutions. Specifically, 4 monitoring indicators (ammonium concentration in the flooded water, the daily highest temperature, the TN concentration at the soil depth of 120 cm and rainfall) for rice planting system, 5 monitoring parameters (soil ammonium concentration in the 0-30 cm layer, the daily highest temperature, soil pH, the nitrogen application rate and rainfall) for wheat planting system, and 2 monitoring indexes (the nitrogen application rate and rainfall) for greenhouse vegetable planting system have been proposed in the study. Statistical validation confirmed that these newly developed monitoring indicators can improve the prediction accuracy of non-point source pollution emission. Therefore, this study provides a convenient and effective method of environment monitoring and management for the environmental protection authorities of government.

Estimation of Non-Point Source N Emission in Intensive Cropland of China
XIA Yong-qiu, YANG Wang-xin, SHI Wei-ming, YAN Xiao-yuan
2018, 34(9):  782-787.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.09.003
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Non-point source pollution (NPS) has become a serious problem worldwide. Currently the methods to evaluate N loads of NPS in the large scale are limited to nitrogen budgets and export coefficient of N fertilizer application, which are highly uncertain. On the basis of 187 data across China's croplands, a stepwise regression model including key factors of N application, rainfall, and soil clay content was proposed to simulate N runoff and leaching of cropland of China. Using the statistic yearbook of 2011, the simulations show that the total N runoff from cropland was 0.96 Tg, accounting for 6.0% of the total N fertilizer input, in which dryland and paddy field released 0.76 and 0.20 Tg, respectively. While the total leached N from cropland was 1.01 Tg, accounting for 6.3% of the total N fertilizer input, in which dryland and paddy field released 0.87 and 0.14 Tg, respectively. The results have highlighted the importance of non-point source N from the middle and low reaches of Yangzi River, hilly areas of Southwest China, Shandong Province, and North China Plain. The model has not only provided the approach of estimating the distribution of non-point source N from cropland, but also greatly reduced the uncertainty of non-point source N estimation at large scale, compared to the traditional export coefficient model.

Research Advances on Process and Monitoring Methods of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in Paddy Fields
HU Bing-tao, ZHANG Long-jiang, YANG Shi-hong, CHEN Yu-dong, ZHOU Hui-ping
2018, 34(9):  788-796.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.09.004
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Rice is one of the major cereal crops in China. During the rice production process, part of the nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil and fertilizer migrates to the surrounding water body through leaching and runoff in the form of solutes or particles, causing groundwater pollution and eutrophication of water bodies. Ammonia produced by ammonium volatilization in paddy soil and nitric oxide produced by denitrification reactions enter the atmosphere, aggravating the greenhouse effect. The commonly used monitoring methods of gas volatilization, runoff, and leaching in paddy fields from domestic and international studies are introduced, and the monitoring indicators, monitoring frequency, and monitoring depth in the pathways are further discussed; the main nitrogen and phosphorus forms in runoff loss and leaching loss are summarized; the monitoring frequency is determined by the characteristics of runoff and the fertilization; plant absorption and depth of groundwater should be considered to determine the depth of leaching monitoring. This study provides a reference for further monitoring of nitrogen and phosphorus losses in paddy fields.

The Study of Ecological Civilization Construction (ECC) Mode Based on “Internet+Ecology” Concept and Technology
WANG Rang-hui
2018, 34(9):  797-802.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.09.005
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Under the background of rapid urbanization in China, ecological problems have directly affected the sustainable development of resources, environment and social economy. Under the condition of constant development of "internet+" concept and technology, and on the basis of systematically combing ecological civilization connotations and development characteristics in new era, 5 sub-system connotations have mined including ecological economy, ecological environment, ecological human settlements, ecological system and ecological culture. In view of the reality of urbanization process, the ecological civilization construction (ECC) index system with 25 secondary indexes was set up, and the binding index and guiding index were also defined. At the same time, taking consideration of the complexity and universality of ecological problems and the necessity and urgency of ECC, depending on the principle and method of remote sensing and information technology, combining with "internet+ecology" concept and technology, an urban ecological internet of things (EIOT) mode was built up on a street scale. Based on the characteristics of regional ECC, ECC information management system with GIS technology has been proposed as an effective way to realize the planning and management of ecological civilization. This study could provide important technical support and practical guiding value for the implementation of compensation for ecological and environmental damage system.

Review on the Study of the Impacts of Land Consolidation on Ecosystem Services
WANG Jun, ZHONG Li-na, YING Ling-xiao
2018, 34(9):  803-812.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.09.006
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Ecosystem services (ES) are benefits that humans derive directly or indirectly from ecosystems, which make connections between human and nature and between the science and management decisions closely. Thus, it is of great significance of comprehensive recognition of the human activities impacts on the ecosystems for making the regional developments harmoniously and sustainably. With impacts on the change of land use and terrestrial ecosystems, land consolidation has been one of the hugest organized human activities in China. Deeply affecting regional and national land use patterns and ecological processes, land consolidation significant influences ES. Based on the introduction of the relationships between land consolidation and ES, this paper summarized the impacts of the land consolidation on ES indirect through changing the types, structures and patterns of the land use/cover, and the direct impacts of its engineering features such as land leveling, irrigation and drainage on the different ES types including provision, regulation, support and cultural services as both positive and negative existing. This paper also summarized the impacts of land consolidation on those ES relationships with synergy/trade-off, as the scale effects of these impacts revealed the scale dependence. The future prospects were suggested of the research on the impacts of land consolidation on ES as follows:(1) Enhancing the study on the impacts of land consolidation on the ecosystem structures and processes, to develop the method and models of the land consolidation impacts on the ecological processes and functions; (2) Highlighting the study on the ESs and their relationships, based on the main thread of the land consolidation affecting the ecosystem structures and functions, the ES and its regulations; (3) Focusing on the integration and optimization of regional ESs, to regulate the key ES spatio-temporal patterns scientifically with land consolidation; (4) Paying more attention to the scale effects of the impacts of land consolidation, as well as its coupling mechanism at different scales. It is expected to improve the research of ESs affected by land consolidation, and scientific basis will be provided for the management decision-making to integrate ESs evaluation into land consolidation.

Empirical Study on Ammonia Emission Inventory From Livestock
WANG Wen-lin, TONG Yi, DU Wei, GAO Yan, LIU Xiao, GUAN Lei, ZENG Jie-liang, FAN Jun-qi, WU Qiong, LI Wen-jing, HE Fei, LIU Bo, ZHAO Xue-tao
2018, 34(9):  813-820.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.09.007
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Ammonia plays a key role in the formation of haze, therefore, controlling ammonia emission from pollution sources is an effective measure to improve air quality, in which livestock is one of most important sources. Through investigating the development process of the ammonia emission inventory of livestock, the application of the ammonia emission inventory of livestock in the United States and China was summarized. At the same time, combined with the measured data of a pig farm, the Chinese guide and the European Union method (EEA method) were compared and analyzed. The results show that (1) there are two kinds of methods to develop the ammonia emission inventory, the total coefficient method and stage coefficient method, respectively; (2) the ammonia emission coefficients of livestock house and storage measured by the EEA method were significantly higher than the results of China's guide and the actual measured results, meanwhile, the results of China's guide were roughly close to the actual measured results. It was attributed to the localization of key parameters, such as total ammonium nitrogen (TAN), in China's guide, however, the accuracy of the inventory is still restricted by lacking of the research on the ratio of ammonia emission in different stages; (3) the structure of ammonia emission inventory parameters can not match with the base quantity of livestock in China. Therefore, it is urgent to further carry out the field measurement of basic parameters, such as the amount of TAN in the livestock excrement, ammonia volatilization rate, and non-ammonia conversion rate, so as to provide the theoretical support for the establishment of indigenization livestock ammonia emission inventory in China.

Measurement and Mechanism of Poverty-Ecology System Resilience of the State-Owned Forest in Heilongjiang Province, China
QIN Hui-yan, GUAN Ying, HUANG Ying-li
2018, 34(9):  821-829.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.09.008
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System resilience refers to the ability of the system to return to its original state after being disturbed and the greater the system's resilience, the higher its stability. Vulnerability and response capacity together affect the resilience of the system. Based on the concept and implications of system resilience, this paper constructs a measure model of poverty-ecology system resilience in China's Heilongjiang State-Owned Forest Region. It does so by employing set pair analysis and the entropy method, while the study propose the poverty-ecology system resilience indicators, including the vulnerability and response capacity in poverty and ecology subsystem, and analyzes the evolution trend and the driving mechanism of resilience. The results show that, from 1998 to 2015, the poverty ecological system total vulnerability index of the region increased slowly, from 0.41 to 0.52, the total system resilience index increased rapidly, from 0.10 to 0.85, and the total system resilience index increased from 0.23 to 0.73. The vulnerability of the ecological subsystem has a substantive impact on the system's overall vulnerability, while the response capacity of the poverty subsystem has a substantive influence on the system's total response ability. The relationship between the system's total resilience and the total vulnerability and total response capacity presents stages:from 1998 to 2006, the total vulnerability had a greater impact on the total resilience, while the total response capacity gradually played a key role in the total resilience from 2007 to 2015. The direction and rate of impact on resilience was obviously uncertain, and the relationship between the impact factors and the resilience demonstrates linear and nonlinear effects, though the latter dominate.

Ecological Vulnerability Assessment in Beijing Based on GIS Spatial Analysis
FU Gang, BAI Jia-de, QI Yue, YAN Bing, HE Jing, XIAO Neng-wen, LI Jun-sheng
2018, 34(9):  830-839.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.09.009
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With the development of urbanization and industrialization, ecological environment problems have been increasing imminently. Ecological vulnerability has become a hot spot study area of global change and land use/cover change. This paper demonstrates an illustrative analytical framework for assessing ecological vulnerability in Beijing City by spatial principal component analysis resolutions. And ecological vulnerability index system for multiple spatial variables, based on remote sensing data of the year of 2013 and other aspects of spatial ecological environment data, was established from ecological sensitivity index (ESI), ecological elasticity index (EEI) and ecological pressure index (EPI). The results are as follows:(1) Beijing's overall ecological vulnerability is at medium level, but the urban vulnerability index is higher than other districts (extremely high and highly vulnerable areas account for 34% of the total area of Beijing), and the vulnerability index of mountain forest areas are relatively lower (general vulnerability areas account for 11% of total areas). (2) The weight coefficients of ecology sensitivity, elasticity and pressure are 0.196, 0.526 and 0.278. (3) EVI, ESI, EEI, EPI are closely related to LUCC for significant correlations, and the correlation between construction land and EVI is the largest (Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.80). In short, ecological protection measures have good effects on ecological restoration, and some effective measures should be carried out for urban ecological protection.

Appraisal of Ecological Security Based on Improved Ecological Footprint Model in Yarkant River Plain Oasis
ZHANG Xue-qi, MANSUR·Shabiti, MA Guo-fei
2018, 34(9):  840-849.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.09.010
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By using improved ecological footprint model based on ecosystem service theory regional ecological footprint (EF) and ecological capacity (EC) in Yarkant river plain oasis, Xinjiang were calculated. Regional production and consumption patterns were judged by ecological deficit/surplus and the efficiency of regional resources utilization was reflected by ecological footprint of per 10 000 yuan GDP. The ecological tension index (ETI) was introduced to quantitatively evaluate the regional ecological security and its changing trend was forecasted by using GM(1,1) model. The results show that:The ecological footprint of the Yarkant river plain oasis increased in the past 25 years with an average annual growth rate of 15.45%. The ecological capacity showed a decreasing trend in general. Regional production and consumption were still in the mode of sustainable development while the ecological surplus decreased from 18 969.45×103 to 5 636.25×103 hm2, with reduction rate of 70.29%. The efficiency of resource utilization improved continuously and the ecological footprint of per 10 000 yuan GDP reduced from 17.59 to 4.61 hm2. The ecological tension index increased and the level of ecological security changed from 1 to 2, though the ecological environment of the study area was still in a safe state. There were great differences among counties in ecological security. In 2016, as an example, ecological security of Zepu and Yecheng Counties was extremely unsafe but Bachu County was in a very safe state. According to the predicting results of GM(1,1), in the next 30 years, EF will increase and EC will decrease and ecological surplus will turn into ecological deficit. By 2048, regional ecological security will deteriorate to extremely unsafe. It is suggested that the production activities of Yarkant river plain oasis should be focused on the protection of the aquatic ecosystem, curb of excessive consumption of grassland and cultivated land, so as to ensure the sustainable development of regional production and consumption.

Characteristics of Vertical Distribution of Organic Phosphorus by 31P-NMR Technical From Different Sources of Core Sediments in Gehu Lake
CHEN Jing, ZHANG Yi-min, YANG Fei, KONG Ming, ZHANG Zhi-wei, BA Cui-cui, YIN Jie
2018, 34(9):  850-856.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.09.011
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Three typical core sediments located in different ecological sites were selected to study the content and vertical distribution characteristics of organic matters and organic phosphorus in Gehu Lake, characterizing the bioavailability of different organic phosphorus species of these sediments by chemical sequential fractionation and 31P-NMR technical. The results suggest that the content of organic matters decreased in vertical direction, and represented a distinct tendency in different ecological sites meanwhile:fishery farming area > estuary area > float grass area. The organic phosphorus species followed the order of Res-P > HCl-Po > NaOH-Po > NaHCO3-Po, and most of potential biological phosphorus NaHCO3-Po and NaOH-Po appeared in upper sediments. With the results of 31P-NMR, orthophosphate was dominant in biological phosphorus, P-monoester occupied a large proportion of organic phosphorus components, P-diester varied greatly by different ecological lake areas.

Effects of Micro-Plastics on Sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) Residues in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Muscle
ZHANG Shi-yun, SONG Chao, ZHANG Jing-wei, CHEN Ze-qiu, ZHANG Cong, QIU Li-ping, CHEN Jia-zhang
2018, 34(9):  857-864.  doi:10.11934/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.09.012
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Micro-plastics are widely distributed pollutants in China's water environment. Sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) is frequently-used as antibiotics in aquaculture. However, the effect of micro-plastics on SMZ residues in tilapia muscle is unclear. The micro-plastics and sulfamethoxazole dosage in fishponds have been manipulated based on the ambient concentration, and the application of sulfonamides in aquaculture specified by SC/T 1084-2006. Three concentrations including:zero (NP), low (LP) and high (HP) micro-plastics in fishponds; and four doses of SMZ[zero (NS), low (LS), medium (MS) and high (HS)] in forages were fabricated. For understanding the effect of micro-plastics on SMZ residues in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) muscle, an 8-weeks breeding experiment was conducted. Tilapia was fed in the first four weeks on a SMZ diet, followed by non SMZ diet for the next four weeks. SMZ content in fish meat was determined during the fourth, sixth and eighth weeks. The fourth week's results of SMZ residue in fish meat reveal that environmental micro-plastics could significantly reduce the residual value of SMZ in fish-meat. Single factor analysis of variance for the residual value of SMZ in fish meat at the 4th, 6th and 8th weeks, reveal that after the 4th week, all micro-plastic exposure groups at different SMZ dosage diets were significantly lower than those in the non-micro-plastic groups (P<0.05), and there was no significant differences between the micro-plastic concentrations (P>0.05). After the 6th week, only HP and NP groups with MS diet had significant differences (P<0.05), and no significant difference was found in other SMZ feed groups of different micro-plastic treatments (P>0.05). Similarly, the results from the 8th week, show that there was no significant difference in all groups fed on SMZ diet for the different micro-plastics treatments (P>0.05). In conclusion, the findings indicate that the effect of micro-plastics on sulfamethoxazole residues in fish-meat is limited by sulfamethoxazole dosage.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents
2018, 34(9):  0-0. 
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