Table of Content

Volume 35 Issue 4
25 April 2019
Spatio-Temporal Change in Agricultural Carbon Production Budget and Evaluation of Agricultural Carbon Emission Equity in Luzhou City
LUO Hong, LUO Huai-liang, LI Chao-yan, XIONG Jing-yun
2019, 35(4):  409-418.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0431
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Based on spatial data of Luzhou City, the parameter estimation and IPCC inventory estimation methods were used to estimate the carbon budget of agricultural production in the city from 2006 to 2015. The equity of regional agricultural carbon emissions has been evaluated using the ecological carrying and economic efficiency coefficients. The results show that:(1) Within the ten years, the city's agricultural carbon absorption had increased from 166.47×107 kg to 188.38×107 kg, while rice had the largest share of carbon sequestration. The carbon absorption intensity from agriculture rose from 8×103 kg·hm-2 in 2006 to 8.96×103 kg·hm-2 in 2015. Among the areas in Luzhou City, carbon absorption intensity was significantly weakened in Longmatan and Xuyong, while that from Luxian and Hejiang increased significantly. (2) During the study period, the city's carbon emissions from agriculture reduced from 144.02×107 kg to 127.71×107 kg, of which livestock breeding was the largest source of emissions. The carbon intensity of agriculture fell from 6.92×103 kg·hm-2 in 2006 to 6.07×103 kg·hm-2 in 2015, with intensities from Longmatan, Naxi, Xuyong, and Gulin weakening significantly, while the intensity from Luxian significantly increased. (3) The ecological carrying capacity of agricultural carbon emissions was the largest in Jiangyang, followed by Longmatan, Luxian, Hejiang, Naxi, Gulin and Xuyong. Agricultural production efficiency ranked as following:Longmatan > Jiangyang > Luxian > Hejiang > Naxi > Gulin>Xuyong. (4) A cluster analysis of agricultural carbon emission equity shows that the northern plains to certain extent shared the pressure of other areas of the city on reducing agricultural carbon emission. But the carbon emissions from agricultural production in the southern mountainous areas of the city increased the pressure on the city for the reduction of agricultural carbon emission.

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration and Its Sensitivity in Xing'an League of Inner Mongolia
GAO Hong-xia, TANG Hong-yan, LI Min
2019, 35(4):  419-425.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0370
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The variation characteristics of reference crop evapotranspiration(ET0) and its sensitivity to main meteorological factors in Xing'an League of Inner Mongolia under the background of climate warming were studied. ET0 in growing season during 1973-2017 was calculated by using Penman-Monteith equation recommended by FAO based on daily meteorological data of eight weather stations in Xing'an League. Then the spatial-tempral variation characteristics of ET0 over Xing'an League were analyzed with the help of the methods of linear regression and accumulative anomaly. In addition, sensitivity of ET0 to key climate factors, such as temperature, average wind speed, sunshine hours and average vapor pressure was analyzed through using the methods of response curves and sensitivity coefficients. The results show that:(1) Temperature increased significantly(P<0.01) from 1973 to 2017, while average wind speed showed a decrease trend, sunshine hours and average vapor pressure both showed upward trend, but the variation trend of the latter three factors didn't passed the significant test. (2) In the past 45 years, the averge ET0 of Xing'an League in growing season is 765.9 mm, the areas of high values were mainly distributed in Tuquan county and the central part of Keyouzhongqi, the areas of low values being mainly distributed in the northwest of Aershan. The average daily ET0 in growing season of Xing'an League showed an increasing trend, but the trend of increase was not significant. The variaty of average daily ET0 in growth season of Xing'an League during 1973-2017 can be roughly divided into five distinct stages. (3) In the past 45 years, the average daily ET0 increased significantly during the growing season of Aershan, Suolun and Bayanhushu(P<0.05), the variation tendency of Tuquan is not obvious, Indeer and Ulanhot showing a weak downward trend. (4) ET0 is positively sensitive to temperature, average wind speed and sunshine hours in growing season of Xing'an League only show negative sensitivity to average vapor pressure, which was the most sensitive to temperature followed by the average vapor pressure and the lowest sensitivity to the average wind speed in the meantime.(5) The sensitive areas of ET0 to temperature, sunshine hours and average vapor pressure were mainly distributed in eastern and southern of Xing'an League. The northern part and southeast corner were sensitive areas of ET0 to the average wind speed.

Vertical Distribution and Cause Analysis of Phosphorus Fractions in Sediment of Western Taihu Lake
WANG Yi-kai, LI Zhen-guo, CHEN Zhi-biao
2019, 35(4):  426-432.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0259
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The spatial variation and cause of phosphorus fractions in sediment of Western Taihu Lake were examined by the Standards, Measurements, and Testing Program(SMT) method.The results show that all the phosphorus fractions declined with depth, which reveals the enrichment effect of phosphorus pollution in surface sediment. Space diversity of total phosphorus(TP) and phosphorus fractions in sediment of sampling sites observed in Western Taihu Lake. With the reducing of phosphorus pollution, the phosphorus content in water has been decreasing slowly in surface of southwestern area of the lake. The phosphorus pollution levels of the northwest area of the lake were higher than those in southwest areas in the sediments, which is related to the impact of prevailing wind direction, geographical location and surrounding ecosystem condition. The TP content in the lake ranged from 337.27 to 1 081.87 mg·kg-1 and inorganic phosphorus(IP) was the main component of TP in sediments, accounting for 55.27% to 97.93% of TP. IP was dominated by the hydrochloric acid extractable phosphorus(Ca-P) in sediments, accounting for 44.14% to 89.30% of IP. Significantly correlations are existing between TP and IP, and IP and Ca-P, which show that TP content is mainly affected by IP content, and IP content is affected by Ca-P content. The correlation between TP and Fe/Al-P was also significant, which reveals that the external pollution caused by human activities is the major source of phosphorus pollution in sediment.

Spatial Distribution Characteristics of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Water in the Heihe River During Low Water Periods in Spring
WANG Yu, LU Shi-guo, LIU Juan-juan, SHI Wen-qiang, GUO Ya-min
2019, 35(4):  433-441.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0393
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The spatial distribution of water physicochemical properties is very important for the management and protection of water resources. Intuitive analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis and principal analysis were used to analyze the water quality and the spatial distribution of water physicochemical properties of the Heihe River during the dry season, mainly based on 11 sampling data monitored at 17 different sites on the stream channel in April, 2017. The results show that the water quality in the Heihe River is generally good and has strong self-purification capability, but the value of TN varies between 2.25 and 2.65 mg·L-1 in the middle reach, with the levels exceeding the Ⅴ class of national surface water environment standard. According to cluster and discriminant analysis, the samples were divided into 3 groups in spatial scale, of which the former two groups were sampled at the upper and lower stretch of the upper reach, respectively, while the third group sampled at the middle reach. The results reveal that WT, TN, TP and COD were the significant index. Principal component analysis showed that pH, TP, NH4+-N, COD were main factors controlling the water quality in the upper stretch of the upper reach(group 1), while EC, TDS, salinity, TN, DO and NO2--N were the main factors in the middle reach(group 3). The order of comprehensive scores for principal components indicated that the water quality in the lower stretch of the upper reach(group 2) is the best, followed by group 1, while group 3 is the worst. Our study indicate that the interception effect and blocking effect due to hydroelectric cascade exploitation on Heihe Rriver may take an active role in water quality improvement. Intensive human activities such as municipal sewage, agricultural irrigation and industrial sewage may be the main reason for the water body pollution in the middle reach.

Numerical Simulation of Local Peatland Groundwater in the Zoige Plateau Using the Visual MODFLOW
LU Han-you, LI Zhi-wei, HU Xu-yue
2019, 35(4):  442-450.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0190
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Peatland swamp in the Zoige Plateau has been shrinking rapidly since 1950s, where one of the important mechanisms causing water loss in peatland is headward and lateral erosion of natural gullies. Natural gullies drain partially surface water in rainfall season and groundwater in non-rainfall season, both of which accelerate the shrinkage of the swamp. Field observations were conducted in the Zoige Peatland in summer of 2016-2017 and Visual MODFLOW groundwater model was used to study groundwater movement in local peatland and the influence of natural gullies on hydraulic gradient in peat layer near the gully. Results indicate that the movement direction of groundwater is more inclined to the gully greater than that along the terrain slope. Moreover, this trend is more pronounced after the gullies cut through the peat layer, i. e., the hydraulic gradient in the direction perpendicular to the gully increased by about 79%. It definitely shows that the natural gullies could not only drain off surface water in rainfall season, but also facilitate the loss of groundwater on peatland on both sides of gullies during non-rainfall season. This drainage process leads to the formation of dewatering belt on both sides of gullies. This study is of great importance to the adoption of the targeted measures to protect the peatland in Zoige Plateau from cutting through by the gullies.

Spatial Distribution, Hot Spots Identification and Protection Effectiveness Evaluation of Urgently Protected Species in Priority Area of Taihang Mountains Biodiversity Conservation(Beijing Region)
CHEN Long, LIU Chun-lan, MA Ming-rui, QIAO Qing, PEI Sha, LIU Xiao-na
2019, 35(4):  451-458.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0300
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Biodiversity is rapidly losing due to human activities. In this context, allocating more resources to protect the hot spot areas, where the species in urgent need of conservation are clustered, is an effective way to increase the efficiency of biodiversity conservation. Took Beijing as the priority area for biodiversity conservation in Taihang Mountain for a case study, the spatial distribution, hot spots and gap areas of the target species to be protected were identified. The results show that the hotspots were mainly distributed in the areas adjacent to Hebei Province, including Baihuashan area and Donglingshan area in Mentougou District, Songshan area in Yanqing District, Labagoumen area in Huairou District and Wulingshan area in Miyun District. Meanwhile, except for Habenaria schindleri and Kalopanax septemlobus, the remaining 46 target species had been protected to varying degrees, but the conservation efficiency needs to be improved. In addition, about 339 km2 of gap areas that were in urgent need of protection have not yet been designated as nature reserves. Different methods were proposed for the improvement of the protection efficiency, including the construction or expansion of nature reserves, small-reserves and ecological protection redlines. The results will be helpful to the optimization of the existing protection network system and the enhancement of the protection effect of nature reserves.

The Effect of Sod-Culture on the Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Rhizospheric Soil of Olive
JIAO Run-an, LI Chao-zhou, LIU Gao-shun, YAN Shi-peng, JIAO Jian
2019, 35(4):  459-468.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0199
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Sod-culture can increase the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AMF) infection of fruit trees, and AMF infection can promote the nutrient absorption of fruit trees. In order to provide theoretical support for the selection of herbage species with higher mycorrhizal infection rate in olive orchard, and to explore the influence of sod-culture on the AMF species diversity in the rhizosphere soil, the olive root system and rhizosphere soil was used as the research object in this study, with the olive seedlings cultivated in pots, and different grasses(including Paspalum notatum, Trifolium repens and Trifolium pratense) intercropped around the seedlings. The results showed that total of 19 species of AMF belonging to 4 genera in the rhizosphere in the four treatments being identified, Among them G. salsum and G. glomus were the dominant genera;Glomus claroideum, Glomus constrictum, Acaulospora foveata, Glomus clarum, Acaulospora delicate, Entrophospora infrequens were the dominant species. There were significant differences in the types and dominant species of AMF in different sod-culture treatments. The intercropped species of grasses had an important impact on the diversity of AMF, and the species diversity of AMF in the rhizosphere of the olive treated by intercropping bahia grass was higher than that of other treatments. Sod-culture promoted AMF infection of root system of olives and increased the spore density. The content of T-GRSP in the soil that intercropping bahia grass and white clover was significantly higher than that intercropping red clover and no grass;the content of EE-GRSP in the soil that intercropping bahia grass, white clover and red clover was significantly higher than that of no grass. Sod-culture increased soil microbial biomass in the rhizosphere soil of olive, among them intercropping bahia grass promoted the microbial biomass phosphorus and intercropping leguminous grasses promoted microbial biomass nitrogen significantly. Overall, sod-culture improved the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizospheric soil of olive, and the improving effect on AMF diversity of intercropping bahia grass was better than that of the other treatments.

Bird Diversity of Qianjiangyuan National Forest Park and the Surrounding Area, Kaihua County, Zhejiang Province, China
GONG Hao-lin, CAO Ming-chang, CUI Peng, YONG Fan, SHAO Ming-qin, JIANG Jian-hong
2019, 35(4):  469-475.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0239
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Bird diversity in Qianjiangyuan National Forest Park and the surrounding area in Zhejiang Province, China was investigated by line transect in summer and winter. A total of 112 species that belonged to 39 families and 12 orders were recorded, among which 9 species were in the second category of national protected bird species. Resident birds were dominant and accounted for 57.14% of the recorded birds, whereas both summer and winter migrants accounted for 19.64% of the recorded birds. The proportion of resident birds in summer(67.90%) was higher than that in winter(61.25%). Oriental realm species were the dominant species observed(57.14%), whereas Palearctic realm species accounted for 38.39% of observed species. The proportion of Oriental birds in summer(70.37%) was higher than that in winter (52.50%). The diversity and evenness indices differed among various habitats between summer and winter. The number of species and species diversity in Qianjiangyuan National Forest Park were higher than those of the surrounding areas. The diversity index and number of species were high in urban land and farmland-village surrounded by hills. The dominance index of secondary forest was the highest. During winter, farmland-village surrounded by hills had the highest diversity index and primary forest had the fewest species. The results show that moderate disturbance intensity(i. e., farmland-village surrounded by hills) is very important for protecting bird diversity, although primary forest plays an important role in the protection of endangered Galliformes and should be well protected.

Correlation Between Heavy Metal Content in Mareca strepera Tissues and the Environment in the Nanhaizi Wetland, Baotou City
LIU Li, ZHANG Le, LIU Yun-peng, LI Wen-xiu, MIAO Chun-lin, LIU Xiao-guang
2019, 35(4):  476-483.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0126
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To assess the influence of heavy metal on the health of Mareca strepera, the tissue samples of Marecastrepera (pectoral, myocardium, kidney, liver, and bone) and environmental constituents(water, soil, algae, fishes, shrimp, and sediments) were collected from the Nanhaizi Wetland in Baotou, Inner Mongolia;the contents of heavy metals(As, Cr, Cd, and Hg) in the samples were measured using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer(ICP-OES). The distribution of heavy metal content in the tissue samples were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and the correlation of heavy metal content between the M. strepera tissues and that in environmental constituents was determined using the Pearson correlation test. The results reveal that(1) the distribution of heavy metal elements was as follows:As was primarily accumulated in the myocardium and kidney, Cr in the pectoral, and Cd in the kidney. There was no significant difference in the distribution of Hg among the M. strepera tissues; (2) the Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the heavy metal content in M. strepera tissue and that in the environmental constituents, with some metals being enriched in M. strepera tissue. This indicated that M. strepera could be used as an indicator to monitor local environmental pollution;(3) heavy metal contents in the tissues of M. strepera exceeded the average levels observed in ducks in other regions, as revealed by comparison with reports from other countries; this may affect health of M. strepera to some extent. Heavy metal contents in environmental constituents exceeded the national water quality standard(GB 3838-2002), in particular, Hg, Cr and Cd contents in water were about 500, 375, and 38 times higher than the national standard class Ⅰ, respectively, indicating severe local pollution. Management department should focus on effective measures to prevent further deterioration of the environment.

The Community Characteristics and Monthly Variation Patterns of Butterfly Species in Qilian County, Qinghai Province, China
LI Lei-lei, BAO Min, ZHANG Ying, MA Ben-shuang, DAN Zhi-cuo, CHEN Zhen-ning
2019, 35(4):  484-490.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0130
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During the period of 2016-2017, the community characteristics and monthly changes of butterflies in five habitats of Qilian County, Qinghai Province were investigated. The five habitats include cultivated land habitat, steppe habitat, alluvial flat habitat, alpine shrub meadow habitat and forest habitat. The results are as follows:the similarity of butterflies in different habitats was different. The similarity index of alluvial flat habitat and forest habitat was the highest (0.516), followed by cultivated land habitat and steppe habitat(0.513), the lowest similarity index was for cultivated land habitat and alpine shrub meadow habitat(0.250), and the similarity index of cultivated land habitat and forest habitat, alpine shrub meadow habitat and forest habitat were also lower, 0.257 and 0.286, respectively. The diversity index, evenness index and richness index of butterflies in alpine shrub meadow habitat, steppe habitat and forest habitat were relatively high, and the diversity index, evenness index and richness index of butterflies in forest habitat were the lowest, and the dominance index from high to low were steppe habitat(0.259), forest habitat(0.246), cultivated land habitat(0.230), alluvial flat habitat(0.213) and alpine shrub meadow habitat(0.129). The diversity index, dominance index and richness index of butterflies had significant differences in some months(P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the evenness index between the months. The butterfly similarity index, diversity index, dominance index and richness index in different habitats were closely related to the elevation gradient, the vegetation type and the plant composition. The difference between butterflies in different months depended on the phenological phase of the plant and temperature difference.

Profile Distribution of Soil Moisture and Its Temporal Stability Under Various Planting Densities in Rocky Mountain Area of Northern China
LI Zi-tian, WANG Sheng-ping, YUAN Ya-nan, WANG Xu, NIU Yong, ZHANG Zhi-qiang, ZHU Jin-feng
2019, 35(4):  491-499.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0356
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Soil moisture(SM) is one of the most important factors affecting hydrological processes and vegetation growth, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. This study aimed to investigate the effects of planting density(Chinese pine) on SM and its temporal stability in rocky mountain area of Northern China, which would be conducive to sustainable management of forests. Six plots located on the shady and sunny slopes and with low, medium, high density, respectively, were employed in the study. Soil moisture was measured at 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm in depths. Besides the SM, the temporal stability of the soil moisture of the plots was also analyzed in the term of the index of temporal stability (ITS). It has been found that, on the shady slope, the mean SMs of the soil profile did not show significant difference(P>0.05) between the three planting densities in either wet years(2013) or normal(2014) years. On the sunny slope, the plot with a low density(SUL) had the significantly highest SM(P<0.05) when compared with the other densities. Significant differences in SM between the middle and the high density plots were only found in 2014. The effect of planting density on SM at each depth did not uniform across the profile. The SM at the sub-surface layer(20-40 cm) and deep layer (40-60 cm) on shady slope plots showed an unexpected increasing trend with the increase of planting density, different from those of the other depths on either shady or sunny slope. It is assumed that the increasing SM trend might be partly due to the increased litters and more throughfall in the high density plots. When the data observations at the three densities were pooled together, It was found that the ITS values of soil moisture were generally positively correlated with the values of SM. However, the effect of planting density on ITS of soil moisture was more obvious on sunny slope plots, with theirs ITS values widely distributed when the planting density changed. Moreover, the mean ITS value of either of the densities on sunny slope was generally higher than that on shady aspect. It may be concluded that, in rock mountain area of Northern China, the increase of planting density would not significantly affect soil moisture and its temporal stability on shady slope plots. However, it did not hold true for sunny slope plots. To implement a sustainable forest ecological management, it is highly suggested to maintain low planting density on sunny slope plots for an effective ecological effect.

Acute Toxicity and Risk Assessment of Nine Insecticides to Honeybees in Oilseed Rape Fields
TAN Li-chao, CHENG Yan, ZHU Yu-xuan, BU Yuan-qing
2019, 35(4):  500-505.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0137
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Insecticides are used for the controlling of aphids in oilseed rape fields. To evaluate the effects of insecticides on honeybees(Apis mellifera) in oilseed rape fields, acute toxicities of 9 insecticides were tested. Meanwhile, risk assessment was carried out by risk quotients(RQ) method when the 9 insecticides were applied by spraying. The results showed that:the toxicity levels of 70% imidacridine WG, 10% dimethylamine AS, 25% thiazolazine SC, 5% dithiocarbamate GF and 2.5% deltamethrin EC to honeybees were all at high class. However, the risk levels were different, and the risk of 25% thiazolazine SC, 70% imidacridine WG, 10% dimethylamine AS and 2.5% deltamethrin EC were unacceptable to honeybees. The risk of 5% dithiocarbamate GF to honeybees could be reduced by decreasing the amount and frequency of use. The oral and contact toxicity of 50% pirimicarb WP were moderate and low to honeybees, respectively, and the risk could also be reduced by decreasing the amount and frequency of use. The toxicity levels of 5% acetamiprid EC, 48% thiacloprid SC and 25% pymetrozine SC to honeybees were moderate, low and low, respectively. The risk levels of those insecticides are acceptable. The insecticides with low-risk to honeybees such as thiacloprid and pymetrozine could be priority to control the aphids in oilseed rape fields. In order to decrease the hazard of insecticides on honeybees, it is recommended to avoid using insecticides with high-risk in beekeeping areas and in blooming period of honey source crops.

Water Quality and Plant Characteristics of Paddy-Ditch-Pond With Different Ratio of Dairy Manure to Fertilizer in the Paddy Fields
WANG Chun-xue, LI Min, CHEN Jian-jun, SHU Zheng-wen, LI Yuan, ZU Yan-qun, WANG Zhao
2019, 35(4):  506-514.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0349
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In order to study the water quality and plant characteristics of rice-ditch-pond system under the condition of application of fertilizers with different ratio of dairy manure to chemical fertilizers, paddy field and artificial ditch pond system under different ratios of dairy manure and chemical fertilizer were studied. Water samples of the system were collected regularly and analyzed(pH, COD, TN, TP, NO3--N, NH4+-N concentration). At the same time, the biomass and nitrogen and phosphorus content of plants in ditch, pond and rice were analyzed. The results show that the TP concentration of 70% chemical fertilizer +30% dairy manure(70% F+30% M) in paddy field was significantly lower than that of other three fertilization treatments. Although there was a significant difference between different treatments, COD concentration was at a low level(class Ⅲ of surface water standard). There was no significant difference in concentrations of TN, NO3--N, NH4+-N. The yield and the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus of 70% F+30% M were higher. Ditch-pond system for paddy field water purification effect was up to class Ⅲ of surface water standard as a whole. The purification rate of COD was 28.91%-51.77%, and of TP was 79.59%-91.57%, of TN was 4.19%-46.28%, of NO3--N was 6.82%-31.26%, and of NH4+-N was 7.77%-41.42%. The the highest plant biomass of ditch-pond system was Trapa incisa + Trifolium repens, which was 13.55 t·hm-2. The plant with the highest N content was Myriophyllum verticillatum, which was 16.26 g·kg-1, and the plant with the highest P content was Zizania latifolia + Festuca elata, which was 2.91 g·kg-1. In terms of comprehensive biomass and nitrogen and phosphorus content, the plant with the highest yield of N and P were Myriophyllum verticillatum and Trapa incisa + Trifolium repens, respectively, with yield of 100.26 kg·hm-2 and 39.43 kg·hm-2. In conclusion, dairy manure is the best substitute for fertilizer at a rate of 30%, The paddy-ditch-pond system can effectively purify high TP and COD concentrations brought by dairy manure in water, and the best purification effect are Myriophyllum verticillatum and Trapa incisa + Trifolium repens.

Study on the Enrichment and Migration Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soil-Grapevine System
PANG Rong-li, WANG Shu-yan, WANG Rui-ping, DANG Qi, GUO Lin-lin, XIE Han-zhong, FANG Jin-bao
2019, 35(4):  515-521.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0410
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In order to explore the characteristics of enrichment and migration of heavy metals in the soil-grape system, grapevine was systematically analyzed in ripe. The contents of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg, As in the soils, roots, stems, leaves and fruits of grape were determined. The results show that different heavy metals were specific in different organs of grape plants. The distribution of Pb, Cr, As and Ni contents from high to low was root > leaf > stem > fruit, and the distribution of Zn, Cu and Hg contents from high to low was leaf > root, stem > fruit, and the distribution of Cd content from high to low was stem > root > leaf > fruit. The average enrichment coefficient(BCF) of grape plants from high to low was Cd > Zn > Cu > Hg > Ni > Cr > As > Pb. Cd was 1.64 and Zn was close to 1.00, and the rest was much less than 1.00. According to the heavy metal migration ability, it could be divided into three categories:The first type was Cd, which had strong enrichment ability. The second type was Zn, which had certain enrichment ability. The third type was Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cu, which had no enrichment ability. The migration characteristics of different heavy metals in soil-grapevine system were different. Among them, Zn had strong migration ability between root-soil, root-stem and between stem-leaf, but weak between stem-fruit;Cd had very strong root-stem migration ability, but weak between stem-leaf and stem-fruit;Cu had stronger migration ability between root-stem and between stem-leaf, but weaker between root-soil and between stem-fruit;Hg had very strong migration ability between stem-leaf. Cr, Pb, As and Ni also had certain migration ability between stem-leaf, but their absorption was hindered in some way.

Representation and Inversion of Reconstructed Soil Volumetric Water Content in Loess Open Pit Mining Area
LUO Gu-bai, CAO Yin-gui, BAI Zhong-ke, KUANG Xin-yu, WANG Shu-fei, SONG Lei
2019, 35(4):  529-537.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0506
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The south dumping site of the Pingshuo Antaibao Open-Pit Coal Mine of China Coal Energy was taken as a research object, aiming to reveal the characteristics of the depth difference of the soil volumetric water content in the reconstructed soil profile of the reclaimed land in the ground penetrating radar(GPR) signal map, and a fitting model of Soil volumetric water content and dielectric constant was established. The volumetric water content of the reconstructed soil profile at different locations of the dump site in the mining area was obtained by two methods:ring knife sampling weighing and GPR detection. The test results were analyzed by means of analysis of variance, fitting analysis and comparative analysis. The results show that the volumetric water content of reconstructed soil profiles in different positions of dump and different depths of the same section is obviously different;the P2 profile showed two distinct peaks at 10-20 and 50-60 cm depth. Within 0-20 cm depth of P5 profile, soil volumetric water content was higher, and the standard deviation was 4.84%. By comparison, the soil volumetric water content calculated by the Topp model was slightly higher than the measured soil volumetric water content. The absolute value of the difference of soil volumetric water content calculated by sampling and Topp model was 3.20% and the minimum was 0.13%, and the average deviation rate was 13.42%. The soil volumetric water content of the model inversion was slightly lower than the measured soil volumetric water content. The absolute value of the difference in soil volumetric water content measured by the two methods was 3.11%, the minimum was 0.23%, and the average deviation rate was 9.83%. GPR can analyze the difference of soil volumetric water content in the reconstructed area of the mining area. In addition, the research results in this paper are helpful to enrich the basic principles of soil reconstruction in mining areas and to provide strong support for GPR non-destructive detection of soil volumetric water content.

Research of the Application of Remote Sensing Technology in Monitoring Water Pollution Caused by Coal Suspended Matter in Typical Coal Mining Areas of Western China
WANG Zhe, YU Jiang-kuan, LU Yun-ge
2019, 35(4):  538-544.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0100
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Based on the data of satellites Sentienl-2A and ZY-3, the study used the method combining visual interpretation with high spatial resolution and SWIR empirical model to extract, sort and do statistical analysis of the water pollution caused by coal suspended matter in two typical mining areas of western China, Shendong and Zhungeer. The results show that the water pollution is quite serious both in surface mining and underground mining areas. Polluted water in Shendong coal mining area accounts for 86.44%, while that in Zhungeer coal mining area represents 74.84%. The main factors resulting in water pollution are coal dust and coal-washing wastewater. Water bodies within coal mining areas, of nearby river systems and even in parts of the Yellow River near Zhungeer coal mining area are polluted from slight to serious degrees. Meanwhile, water bodies which are close to coal mining areas with weak mobility and slow circulation are more easily polluted. The method used in this paper is better than traditional visual interpretation analysis used in periodic monitoring in coal mining areas, because it does not need much human intervention and has a reliable basic theory. It can assess the condition of water bodies rapidly and provide information for regulators.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents
2019, 35(4):  0-0. 
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Deactivation Effects of Deactivators on Cadmium and Plumbum Polluted Soil at Different Times
TIAN Xue, ZHOU Wen-jun, ZHANG Zheng-rui, LI Jun-juan, GAO Yu-hui
2019, 35(4):  522-528.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0416
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The objective of this study is to identify deactivations and characteristics of 6 different deactivators on cadmium and plumbum in soil within 90 days. For this purpose, the passivation process and characteristic of cadmium and plumbum deactivators, which were prepared by sepiolite, attapulgite and lime, were studied by soil culture experiment in lab. The effects of constituents and proportions on passivation process and characteristic were also explored. The results indicated that the deactivating rate of Cd which was deactivated by deactivators[except sepiolite and lime(1:2)]increased with time, and the deactivating rate was more than 45% in the 90th day. During the 90 days, the deactivating rate of Pb which was deactivated by deactivators[except sepiolite and lime(1:2)]reached the maximum at the 90th day. At the same time, the deactivators which include attapulgite also had the high deactivating rates of Pb(>50%), which was more than 50%. In the single material treatment, the passivation effect of Cd and Pb which was deactivated by sepiolite was better than attapulgite. In the compound amendment treatments, the deactivating rate of Cd which was deactivated by deactivators[except sepiolite + lime(1:2)]were higher than Pb. And the passivation effect of deactivators which were prepared from clay mineral and lime by the rate of 1:2 was better than the one with rate of 2:1. The deactivation capability of deactivators on Pb excelled on Cd. The deactivation capability of the passivator which were prepared from attapulgite and lime by the rate of 1:2 had the strongest passivation abilities for both Cd and Pb. The order of capacity values was attapulgite + lime(1:2) > attapulgite=attapulgite + lime(2:1)=sepiolite > sepiolite + lime(1:2) > sepiolite + lime(2:1).