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Table of Content

Volume 35 Issue 8
25 August 2019
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
2019, 35(8):  0-0. 
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Review on Methodology and Application of Ecological Security Assessment
Bing-shuai, ZOU Chang-xin, GAO Ji-xi, HE Ping
2019, 35(8):  953-963.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0449
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Ecological Security Assessment (ESA) is the basis and premise of ecological security research. The development progress of ESA is reviewed, and the concept and connotation of ESA are summarized. The following several aspects are focused on the construction of ecological security evaluation index, establishment of evaluation index weight, application of evaluation method, and classification of evaluation results. Based on the review, the problems which exist in the current ecological security evaluation are discussed and the development direction of ecological security evaluation research are prospected. The research aims to provide references for technological innovation and exploration for future development of ESA.

Research Progress on Distribution and Remediation Technologies for the Combined Pollution of Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil
ZHOU Yu-xuan, LONG Tao, ZHU Xin, WANG Lei, KONG Ling-ya, LI Yi-ping, SHI Jia-qi
2019, 35(8):  964-975.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0669
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The contaminants in soil usually exist in the form of combined pollution, and the interactions between various contaminants make it more difficult to remediate, so that treatment technologies for single contaminant is difficult to meet the requirement of soil remediation. This study summarizes the distribution of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons combined pollution, and the mechanisms and application conditions of several kinds of soil remediation technologies, such as soil washing, phytoremediation, microbial remediation and electrokinetic processing. It focuses on putting forward the prospect of further study on combined pollution soil remediation of the above mentioned contaminants.

Study on the Influencing Factors of the Willingness of Tibetan Farmer's Households to Participate in the Improvement of Rural Living Environment
SUN Qian-lu
2019, 35(8):  976-985.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0757
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The improvement of rural living environment has become one of the hot issues in the study on rural revitalization. Based on the household survey data of 721 households in Shigatse and Nakchu of Tibet, using the generalized maximum entropy Logit (GME Logit) analysis method, the willingness of farmer's households to participate in the improvement of rural living environment in minority areas was analyzed from the perspective of family endowment and going to work as migrant workers. The research shows that the enthusiasm of the farmer's households to participate in the improvement of rural living environment is not high, and the awareness of participating in environmental improvement needs to be strengthened. The variables such as the area of cultivated land/grassland, the village leaders' experience, rate of outgoing migrant workers, etc. have a significant positive influence on the farmer's households' willingness to participate in the improvement of rural living environment, but the total family income, and the times of participating in commodity fair and attending farmers' market have a significant inhibitory effect, indicating that some farmer's households with a "economic mind" have a tendency of "free rider". The farmer's households with better health status are more willing to participate in the improvement of rural living environment, while those who are closer to community center and towns are less active.

Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Different Penaeus vannamei Systems in Northern China
CHEN Li-jiao, YANG Huai-yu, ZHANG Jing-yi, SUN Chen
2019, 35(8):  986-991.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0673
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In order to find the key stage causing serious environmental pollution in aquaculture industry production, relevant input and output data of the Penaeus vannamei industry in Rizhao City was collected by field research. The eFootprint software was used to evaluate the life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts of the two culture modes (industrial aquaculture and pond culture). The results show that the environmental impact of the industrial aquaculture were greater than that of pond culture. Among the environmental impacts, the most influential factors were water resource consumption index, the eutrophication potential value index, the climate change environmental impact index, the acidification environmental impact index and the primary energy consumption environmental impact index. Environmental impact index of water resource consumption in industrial aquaculture and in pond culture were 17.72 and 4.73, the eutrophication potential value impact index 6.12 and 2.24, the climate change environmental impact index 3.46 and 0.91, the acidification environmental impact index 2.63 and 0.77, the primary energy consumption environmental impact index 0.69 and 0.17, respectively. Therefore, strengthening environmental management in the upstream industry of aquaculture, trading-off the production planning of pond culture and industrial aquaculture, improving the effective use of water resources are the key measures to promote healthy development of aquaculture.

The Influence of Meteorological Conditions on a Heavy Ozone Pollution Process in Chengde City
LU Qian, WANG Guo-hui, FENG Yi-chun, ZHOU Shi-ru, TAN Guo-ming
2019, 35(8):  992-999.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0445
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Based on the meteorological data of Chengde Meteorological Station and the O3 data of Chengde Environmental Monitoring Station, the meteorological conditions of O3 heavy pollution process from May 22 to June 1, 2015 were analyzed. It was found that from May 22 to June 1, O3 pollution presented a trend of first increase and then decrease, and O3 pollution was the most serious on May 25, and that the daily distribution of O3 concentration was unimodal, with high concentration in the afternoon and low concentration in the morning. The weather situation during the O3 pollution in Chengde City was as follows:500 hPa was controlled by high pressure ridges; 850 hPa had more than 20℃ warm center with a strong warm advection flowing to Chengde City, the southerly airstream prevailed because the sea level pressure field was affected by the mean pressure field at the front of the low pressure and at the rear of the high pressure. The meteorological conditions contributed to O3 pollution include high temperature, high wind speed, strong radiation, long sunshine hours, low atmospheric pressure, low relative humidity, but less-affected visibility. The meteorological conditions for the O3 pollution process are favorable, and the effect of the meteorological conditions on O3 pollution is mainly to promote the generation and regional transmission of O3 pollutants. In this process, the middle and northern part of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province suffered severe O3 pollution. With the help of south wind and southwest wind, the O3 pollution was transported to Chengde from Tangshan and Beijing City.

Comprehensive Assessment of Eco-Environmental Quality of Fishery Waters in the Northern Liaodong Bay in 2008-2017
WU Jin-hao, LI Qiang, SONG Guang-jun, ZHANG Yu-feng, WANG Zhao-hui, SONG Lun, WANG Zhi-song
2019, 35(8):  1000-1008.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0583
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Based on the historical monitoring data of seawater, sediment and biological ecology in the fishery waters of northern Liaodong Bay from 2008 to 2017, a model of index weight evaluation was established by principal component analysis (PCA). The ecological environment quality of the sea area was evaluated comprehensively. The results show that the ecological environment quality of the fishery waters in the northern Liaodong Bay was at the level of light pollution, and the comprehensive pollution index was high on both sides of the east and west, low in the middle, high in the south offshore and low in the northern estuary. In the past 10 years, the comprehensive quality of the eco-environment in the study area was under light pollution except for the year of 2016. In 2011, the comprehensive pollution index was the highest, and the overall comprehensive pollution index remained stable, and show a trend of slight improvement year by year. Cluster analysis showed that the study area can be divided into four categories, with different characteristics. In the first category, the pollution contribution rate of bio-ecological indicators was the highest. The second category was concentrated in Shuangtaizi estuary, and the seawater pollution was obvious. The third category was characterized by heavy metal pollution in sediments. The fourth category was more widely distributed, and the comprehensive pollution index was among those of the other three categories. The pollution in the north of Liaodong Bay was mainly affected by bio-ecological indicators, whose contribution rate was 60.9%, and the contribution rates of seawater and sediment indicators were similar. Nutrients in seawater, heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Zn) in sediment, chlorophyll a and zooplankton were the main pollution indexes in Liaodong Bay, and their pollution contribution rates were high.

Ecological Function Regionalization in the Upper Yangtze River
HONG Bu-ting, REN Ping, YUAN Quan-zhi, WANG Ling
2019, 35(8):  1009-1019.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0459
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Ecological function regionalization is of great importance in ensuring regional ecological security and promoting the coordinated development of economic, social and ecological environment. The Upper Yangtze River is such an important ecological security barrier for the key ecological areas of China and the whole Yangtze River Basin that it is very important to carry out its ecological function regionalization. Taking the Upper Yangtze River as the study area, this paper focuses on revealing the spatial pattern of the ecological environment sensitivity and the ecosystem service function by utilizing GIS spatial analysis technologies. Moreover, with the sub basin as the basic division unit, the Upper Yangtze River zones were implemented using the two step clustering method. The results showed that:(1) The ecological environment in the Upper Yangtze River was in a moderate and highly sensitive condition, while the sensitivity of soil erosion was the most prominent. (2) The ecosystem service function in the Upper Yangtze River showed a relatively important and very important situation, while the water conservation and biodiversity conservation were more important. (3) The Upper Yangtze River can be divided into three ecological areas, which are the Qinghai Tibet plateau ecological area, the Yunnan Guizhou plateau ecological area and the Sichuan basin ecological area, which can be further subdivided into seven ecological sub-regions and fifteen ecological function regions.

Distribution Characteristics of Vegetation Among Different Ditches in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Basin
LIU Lian, ZHAO Yuan, Matthieu NSENGA KUMWIMBA, WANG Tao
2019, 35(8):  1020-1026.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0608
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Vegetation is an important component of the ditch system and plays an important role for maintaining the ecological function of ditches. In order to protect biodiversity of ditch plants in the upper Yangtze River, different kinds of natural ditches in the hilly area of the Sichuan Basin were investigated by plant sampling method. Plant species, species diversity index, vegetation coverage and aboveground biomass in the different ditches were measured, and the influence of surrounding land use on the vegetation distribution of the ditches was further discussed. Results show that:(1) About 16 families and 20 species were measured in the natural ditches in the hilly area of the central Sichuan Basin. However, there were few dominant species, such as the highly invasive species Phyla nodiflora and Alternanthera philoxeroides, whose frequencies were 46.09% and 38.26%, respectively. Thus, the distribution of ditch vegetation in the hilly area of Sichuan Basin was not favorable. (2) The species in residential area ditches were relatively single and the community structure was relatively simple according to the assessment of biodiversity, while the plant species and the community structure of ditches was relatively complex in dry cropland, paddy field, and uncultivated land ditches. (3) Vegetation coverage and biomass in different ditches were significantly different. The average vegetation coverage in different ditches is in the order of paddy field > residential area > dry cropland > uncultivated land. The average vegetation biomass in different ditches is in the order of residential area > paddy field > dry cropland > uncultivated land.

Effects of Water Change on Decomposition and CO2 Emission of Litter of Carex muliensis in Zoige Alpine Wetland
DING Yan, ZHANG Xiao-ya, GAO Jun-qin, LI Qian-wei, YUE Yi, JIANG Li-hua
2019, 35(8):  1027-1033.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0820
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Litter decomposition is an important part of material circulation and energy flowing in wetland ecosystem and one of the key processes to regulate global carbon balance. The litters of Carex muliensis in Zoige alpine wetland were collected, and the weightlessness rate and the CO2 emission with different water volumes and watering frequencies were measured to explore the response of litter decomposition to water change. The results show that there was no significant effect of water change on the litter weightlessness rate. The litter weightlessness rate under different drying-rewetting cycle was between 31.64%-34.26%. The water volumes, watering frequency and their interaction significantly affected the CO2 emission during the litter decomposition (P<0.05). The CO2 cumulative emission was higher under the high water volumes than the low water volumes treatment. Under the high water volumes, the decrease of watering frequency significantly promoted the CO2 cumulative emission(P<0.05). The CO2 emission was (5.28±0.24) and (10.77±0.64) g·kg-1 under the high and the low watering frequency treatment, respectively. Therefore, changes of precipitation patterns in future, including altered precipitation volumes and frequency, will have an important impact on the litter decomposition and the CO2 emission of Zoige alpine wetland.

Characteristics of Macrobenthos Communities and Status Quo of Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense Resources in Changli Sea Area, Hebei Province
GUO Xing-ran, LIU Xian-bin, ZHANG Qing-tian, ZHAO Xing-gui
2019, 35(8):  1034-1042.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0883
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In spring (May) and summer (August) of 2017, the community characteristics of macrobenthos and status quo of Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense resources were investigated in Changli Gold Coast National Nature Reserve, Hebei Province. The results show that 56 species and 50 species of macrobenthos were identified in spring and summer respectively, and most species in both seasons belong to Annelids. The average abundance of macrobenthos was 87.11 m-2, while the average biomass was 11.13 g·m-2; the average abundance of B. belcheri tsingtauense was 31.36 m-2, while the average biomass was 1.44 g·m-2. The body length of B. belcheri tsingtauense ranged from 0.50 to 4.45 cm, and most individuals were in Ⅱ-age and Ⅲ-age. The body weight ranged from 0.3 to 109.4 mg, and the dominant weight groups were >20-40 and 0-20 mg. The B. belcheri tsingtauense in the Changli sea area was small, compared with historical data; the amount of B. belcheri tsingtauense resources had been decreasing. The changes in biodiversity indices in spring and summer represented similar trends, and the average Shannon-Wiener Index indicates that the habitat quality was moderate. Both clustering analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) were carried out to analyze the macrobenthic community structure in the two seasons. The macrobenthic community in spring was divided into 5 groups, while it was divided into only 2 groups in summer. The difference between community compositions was obvious, which indicates that the community structure changed greatly across seasons.

Response of Soil Nematodes to Different Pest Control Strategies in the Pear Orchard
ZHANG Hang, LUAN Xiao-bing, LIU Qi-zhi
2019, 35(8):  1043-1050.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0778
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To explore the response of soil nematodes to different pest control strategies in the pear orchard, community composition of soil nematodes in the pear orchard was investigated in Beijing. A total of 9 960 soil nematode individuals were captured and classified into 2 classes, 5 orders, 23 families and 43 genera at 0-20 and >20-40 cm soil depth in three plots:conventional plot(frequent chemical control), experimental plot-1(pesticide reduction)and experimental plot-2(pesticide reduction based on botanical pesticides), which were divided according to the different pest control strategies. The number of total soil nematodes collected at 0-20 cm soil depth in the experimental plot-1 was significantly higher(P<0.05) than that in the conventional plot, but was significantly lower(P<0.05) than that in the experimental plot-2.The relative abundance of bacterivores at >20-40 cm soil depth in the experimental plot-1 and the experimental plot-2 were significantly lower (P<0.05) than that in the conventional plot, but the relative abundance of herbivores at >20-40 cm soil depth in the experimental plot-1 and the experimental plot-2 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in the conventional plot. The value of Simpson's dominance index (λ) was higher in conventional plot, while the values of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') and Pielou evenness index (J) were higher in experimental plot-1 and experimental plot-2. The results indicate that frequent chemical control affected community structure of soil nematodes in pear orchard and also decreased the diversity of soil nematodes community, but pesticide reduction and application of botanical pesticide reduced the effects on the number and diversity of soil nematodes.

Vertical Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon in Salix triandroides and Carex brevicuspis Communities Along Water Level Gradients in the Dongting Lake Wetlands
BIAN Hua-lin, YANG Guang-jun, NIU Yan-dong, DENG Jia-jun, LI You-zhi, DING Xiao-hui, YAO Xin, ZHOU Qiao-qiao
2019, 35(8):  1051-1057.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0569
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The Salix triandroides and Carex brevicuspis communities in Dongting Lake wetland with three gradient of ground water level were studied, the comparison revealed the content of soil organic carbon and the composition of humus carbon (Humic acid carbon, Fulvic acid carbon and Humin carbon) in the four soil layers (0-20, >20-40, >40-60 and >60-80 cm) of the two plant communities. The results show that:(1) The content of organic carbon and humus carbon in the soil of two species of plant communities was higher at 0-20 cm soil layer. (2) In general, the organic carbon content of the four soil layers in the Carex brevicuspis community was higher in the middle water level area, while in the Salix triandroides community the 0-20 cm soil layer was higher in the high water level area, and the >20-80 cm soil layer was higher in the middle water level. There was no significant difference in the content of fulvic acid carbon between the three water levels in the Salix triandroides community and Carex brevicuspis community. The Salix triandroides community 0-20 cm soil humic acid and humin carbon content in high water level was higher, >60-80 cm soil humic acid carbon content in high water level was low, and >20-40 and >40-60 cm soil layer under the water level of three kinds of humic acid carbon content had no significant difference, in the three-layer of >20-80 cm were all low in high water level. Carex brevicuspis community soil humin carbon content is higher in middle water level area, 0-20 and >20-40 cm soil layer of the carbon content of humic acid in middle water level is higher, >60-80 cm soil layer with high water level is low, 40-60 cm soil layer humin carbon content under the three kinds of water level had no significant difference. (3) In each component of humus, humin carbon content was the highest in both plant communities. (4) Compared with Carex brevicuspis community, Salix triandroides community can improve the low water level area 0-80 cm, and high water area 0-20 cm of soil organic carbon and humus carbon content, but reduces the middle water level in the 0-80 cm, and high water level >20-60 cm soil organic carbon and humus carbon content. So that, the soil carbon of wetland is affected by the comprehensive vegetation type and water level gradient, and it is needed to combine with the hydrological characteristics to scientifically evaluate the soil carbon of wetland.

Removal of Low Concentration Phosphate From Aqueous Solution by Particle Anthracite Activated Carbon
CHANG Hui-qing, ZHU Xiao-hui, ZHENG Cai-jie, JIAO Chang-feng, WANG Qi-zhen, WU Jie
2019, 35(8):  1058-1063.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0796
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In order to clarify the optimum conditions, removal effect and mechanism of low concentration phosphate from aqueous solution by particle anthracite activated carbon (AC). A pilot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adsorbent dose, temperature range, adsorption time, and pH on phosphate removal. Characterization and mechanism of phosphate adsorption on anthracite activated carbon by isothermal adsorption, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray energy spectrum (XRD) and Zeta potential,SEM were studied. The results show that different pH and temperature conditions in the adsorption system have different effects on the adsorption of phosphate on particle activated carbon, and the adsorption effect was the best when pH was 6.0, and it is advantageous to the adsorption of phosphate on activated carbon at high temperature. The optimum adsorption conditions for particle anthracite activated carbon to low concentration phosphate (2 mg·L-1) were as follows:10 g·L-1 of anthracite activated carbon, 6 h of adsorption time, 6.0 of the pH, and the removal rate of phosphate was 80%, at 25℃. The isothermal adsorption of phosphate on particle activated carbon followed Langmuir and Freundlich models, which showed that the activated carbon had both physical and chemical adsorption on phosphate. So that there was not only mutual adsorption between phosphate and surface functional groups of activated carbon, but also the removal of phosphate was related to the precipitation of metal ions on activated carbon. Therefore, this study provides a basis for the advanced treatment of low concentration phosphate wastewater with anthracite activated carbon.

Study on Capacity of Removal and Adsorption of Fluoride From Groundwater by Bone Biochar
CAO Jun-min, LI Xin, XU De-fu
2019, 35(8):  1064-1070.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0547
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Human health will be endangered by long term drinking of water containing excessive fluorine. Cow bone biochar, pig bone biochar, chicken bone biochar and activated alumina were selected as materials to study their capacity to adsorb fluorine based on isothermal adsorption experiments, dynamic adsorption experiments, continuous water column and small-scale experiments. The adsorption materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface area measurement(BET) and fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Results show that the adsorption kinetics of fluorine by the four materials accorded with quasi-second-order kinetics model, which belonged to chemical adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of fluorine by activated alumina, cow bone biochar, pig bone biochar and chicken bone biochar were 2.487, 5.336, 7.974 and 7.236 mg·g-1, respectively. The adsorption capacity and affinity for fluorine was greater for bone biochar than activated alumina. Treating low-concentration fluorine groundwater in rural areas with activated alumina does not reduce the fluorine concentration sufficiently to meet the drinking water standard. However, good fluorine adsorption is found when using bone biochar resulting in the quality of treated groundwater meeting the drinking water standard.

Characteristics of Cd2+ Adsorption From Water by Sulfhydryl Group Modified Rice Hull Biochar
SHAO Ai-yun, CHENG De-yi, DAI Jing-yu, DU Qi-wen, DU Chao, HUANG Zhao-qin
2019, 35(8):  1071-1079.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0722
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The rice hull biochar(RHB) was modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane, and analyzed for the Zeta potential, SEM-EDS, BET and FTIR before and after the modification. Effects of solution pH, reaction temperature and time, solid-liquid ratio and other factors on the adsorption of Cd2+ on the rice hull biochar before and after modification and the desorption were investigated. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of modified rice hull biochar(MRHB) on Cd2+ in water were studied. Results show that both the MRHB surface pores and the negative charge increased, the structure was clearer, and the sulfhydryl group was successfully introduced. Under different influencing factors, the adsorption effect of sulphide-modified RHB on Cd2+ was excellent. Under the best condition, the maximum MRHB(14.95 mg·g-1) was 76% higher than non-modified RHB(8.50 mg·g-1) and the desorption rate reduced by 23%-53%. The whole adsorption process was more in line with the quasi-secondary kinetics(R2>0.99) and the Langmuir isotherm equation model(R2>0.99). The adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic process dominated by mono-layer adsorption.

Adsorption Characteristic and Mechanism of Cr6+ by Shrimp Shell-Derived Biochar
WANG Li, HU Miao, XU Jian-jun
2019, 35(8):  1080-1088.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0867
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The adsorption properties of Cr6+ from simulated chrome solution by biochar, which was prepared with shrimp shell, was investigated. The effect of pH, Cr6+ concentration, biochar dosage and temperature on the adsorption capacity was systematically examined. Furthermore, the biochar and the concentration of the dissolved chromium in the solution were analyzed to elucidate the adsorption mechanism involved in the process. The experimental results indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of the shrimp shell-derived biochar to Cr6+ was dramatically affected by pH and the dosage of biochar, as well as the initial concentration of Cr6+.The equilibrated adsorption capacity of Cr6+ could reach 73.83 mg·g-1 under the conditions of the biochar dosage of 0.2 g·L-1, Cr6+ concentration of 15 mg·L-1 and pH 3.0. The shrimp shell-derived biochar adsorption process on Cr6+ could be described by the pseudo-second order kinetics model. While the equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich isotherm.The Langmuir maximum adsorption amounts were detected to be 111.0 mg·g-1. Cr6+ adsorbed on the biochar via the electrostatic power and coordination was partially reduced to Cr3+.