Table of Content

Volume 35 Issue 10
25 October 2019
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
2019, 35(10):  0-0. 
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Research Progress and Prospect of Graphene Oxide Modified Composite Membrane in Water Treatment.
ZHANG Zhi-wei, XU Bin, ZHANG Yi-min, BA Cui-cui, TANG Zhi-kai, GU Shi-yun
2019, 35(10):  1225-1231.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0147
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Graphene oxide (GO) composite membranes have attracted much attention in the field of membrane separation due to their excellent hydrophilicity, abundant functional groups, large specific surface area and chemical stability. In this paper, the preparation methods of GO composite membranes were reviewed, including vacuum filtration, spin coating, layer-by-layer self-assembly, doping method and blending. Meanwhile, the research progress of GO composite membranes in the field of water treatment (micro-polluted water treatment and advanced treatment of industrial wastewater) was introduced. In addition, the separation mechanism of pollutants by GO composite membranes was discussed. Finally, the application prospects and future research directions of GO composite membranes in the field of water treatment were prospected.
Spatial-Temporal Dynamics and Prediction of Carbon Emission From Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in China
XU Li, QU Jian-sheng, WU Jin-jia, WEI Qin, BAI Jing, LI Heng-ji
2019, 35(10):  1232-1241.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0884
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Based on the data of major grain crops, agricultural inputs and animal husbandry, agriculture and animal husbandry carbon emissions from 1997 to 2016 in 31 provinces were calculated. Their temporal and spatial variations were analyzed by means of changing index, barycenter model and the standard deviation ellipse. Based on trend extrapolation, grey prediction and ARIMA model as well as standard deviation optimal combination model were used to predict carbon emissions from agriculture and animal husbandry from 2017 to 2022. The results show that from 1997 to 2016, the agricultural environment improved, the carbon emission increased, the core moved toward northwest and the main area was on the right side of Hu Huanyong line. However, the animal husbandry carbon emissions in many provinces were reduced, and the core wiggled in Henan Province. The main area expanded and turned to the southeast-northwest. The high volume area of agricultural carbon emission transferred to the 3 northeastern provinces and north China plain, and the high volume area of animal husbandry carbon emission was concentrated in the traditional region and the central region. The combined model is better than the single model. By 2022, the agricultural carbon emissions will follow the historical trend but the annual growth rate will decrease. Animal husbandry carbon emission will reach 1.13×108 t and the annual growth rate will increase.
The Estimation and Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Change Patterns of Carbon Functions in Major Grain Producing Area
DU Jiang, LUO Jun, WANG Rui, WANG Xin-hua
2019, 35(10):  1242-1251.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0192
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This paper focuses on the research of eight types of farm crops and the emission of CO2, CH4 and N2O based on the concept of life cycle and the theory of carbon footprint. The carbon footprint of crops production was estimated by applying the provincial input-output data in the main grain-producing area during 1991-2016. The conclusions are shown as follows:the amount of carbon emissions in main production areas increases by 38.08%. The emission sources sorted by proportions in descending order are rice cultivation (36.76%), agricultural inputs (33.42%), straw burning (17.94%) and nitrogen application (11.88%). The amount of carbon sink increased by 54.28%. The carbon sink amount of most of crops increased annually except for tubers and cotton. Especially, the carbon sink amount of rice, wheat and corn are much larger than other crops. The provinces characterized by rice carbon sink includes Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Sichuan and Anhui. The provinces characterized by wheat carbon sink includes Henan and Shandong. The provinces characterized by corn carbon sink includes Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Jilin, Neimenggu and Hebei. The carbon footprint of crops is featured by "inverted-U-shape", that is,it increased first and then decreased. The footprint increased by 12.17% from 1991 to 2016. The results of the research provided references for the directions and ways of reducing the agricultural carbon emissions.
Study on Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Driving Factors of Carbon Emission From Planting Industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
DING Bao-gen, YANG Shu-wang, ZHAO Yu
2019, 35(10):  1252-1258.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0158
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Based on the statistical data of planting output value, effective irrigated area and material input in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2001 to 2017, the carbon emission from planting industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt was calculated by using the IPCC carbon emission coefficient method. The spatio-temporal characteristics of carbon emission from planting industry in this region were revealed and the driving factors of carbon emissions were analyzed by using LMDI model. The results show that:(1) The carbon emissions of planting industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt were controlled effectively and showed a decreasing trend, while the carbon emissions and carbon emission intensity of planting industry in different provinces and cities were significantly different. Chemical fertilizer was the main source of carbon emission in planting industry, accounting for more than 50%, while the proportion of chemical fertilizer, pesticide and tillage input was decreasing. (2) The agricultural economic level was the most important driving factor for the increase of carbon emissions from planting industry in this region. The agricultural production efficiency was the most important driving factor to reduce the carbon emission from the planting industry, and the agricultural production structure played an important role in promoting the carbon emission from the planting industry as a whole, and the size of the agricultural labor force played an important role in restraining the carbon emission from the planting industry as a whole. In order to realize the high-quality development of low-carbon and green agriculture in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, some relevant policy suggestions are put forward from the aspects of adapting measures to local conditions, highlighting the key points, guiding by science and technology, optimizing the structure and so on.
Influencing Factors and Regulatory Strategies on Large-Scale Pig Farmers' Environmentally Friendly Behaviors: An Exploratory Research Based on Grounded Theory
LIN Li-mei, HAN Ya-qing
2019, 35(10):  1259-1267.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0140
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It is an important way to improve the effect of livestock pollution regulation policy by unraveling the logic underlying of the farmer's environmentally friendly behavior. Through in-depth interviews and application of Grounded Theory, the factors that affect farmer's environmental friendly behavior were explored by qualitative research. The results show that psychological cognition, behavioral intention, cost of behavior implementation and environmental regulation have significant impact on the environmentally friendly behavior of farmers, and the ways and paths of each variable affecting environmental behavior are different. Psychological cognition is a predominant variable, behavioral intention is a cognitive-behavioral intermediary variable, behavioral implementation cost is an internal context variable, and environmental regulatory context is an external context variable. Additionally, the mechanism in which the above main factors work on the environmental behavior was explained. Accordingly, for promoting the internalization of pig farmers' pollution control awareness, the following measures have been proposed:to enrich the publicity and education measures; to strengthen the use of the informal system, to reduce the relative cost of environmental behaviors by means of consultation, dialogue as well as technical and economic supports. It is also recommended that to develop the full-circle regulation of pig farming and eco-agriculture industrial chain by improving the reward and punishment measures and compensation mechanisms.
Concentrations of Heavy Metal Contents in Soil and Citrus, and Citrus Industry Optimization Near a Lead and Zinc Mine in Northern Guangxi
SONG Bo, TIAN Mei-ling, PANG Rui, ZHOU Lang, WU Yong, ZHONG Xue-mei
2019, 35(10):  1268-1273.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0850
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To understand the content of heavy metals in citrus soil and citrus in a lead-zinc mine affected area in northern Guangxi and explore the green development model of the local citrus industry, 131 samples of local citrus soil and 71 citrus fruit samples (58 oranges and 13 kumquats) were collected. The atomic fluorescence spectrometer (AFS-9700), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (AA 700) and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (Optima 7000) were used to determine the content of the three priority control pollutants:As, Pb and Cd. The pollution index method was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Results show that the arithmetic mean soil pH was 6.07 in the study area, indicating that the soil was weakly acidic. The soil heavy metal As pollution was on the safety level. The content of heavy metals Pb and Cd reached 91.40 and 0.906 mg·kg-1, respectively, classified as severe pollution levels. The soil comprehensive pollution index was 4.90, which was at a level of heavy pollution. For the citrus fruits grown in the lead-zinc mine affected area, the contents of As, Pb and Cd in oranges were far below the national standard limit. The content of Cd exceeded the standard limits in kumquats, indicating that kumquat had certain health risks. To develop a healthy and green citrus industry, it is suggested that measures such as citrus variety optimization, planting structure optimization and fertilization mode optimization should be taken and plant extraction technology be used to improve the soil quality.
Investigation on the Residual Level of Environmentally Persistent Pharmaceutical Pollutants in Tianjin City
MENG Di, WANG Zhen, GU Wen, ZHOU Lin-jun, FAN De-ling, WANG Dong-mei, LIU Ji-ning, SHI Li-li
2019, 35(10):  1274-1281.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0053
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Accroding to the pollution problem of environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants (EPPPs), the residual levels and distribution characteristics of 22 kinds of environmental persistent pharmaceutical drug contaminants in water and sediments in Tianjin were investigated by solid phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The results display that the detection rate of 19 kinds of EPPPs was 100% in the water samples from sources, and the concentration range and average concentration were 0.21-0.69 and 0.43 μg·L-1, respectively. As shown in the surface water samples except for kitasamycin (80%), the detection rate for other 21 kinds of EPPPs was all 100%. Moreover, the concentration range of these EPPPs was from 0.52 to 3.88 μg·L-1 and the average concentration was 1.60 μg·L-1. Furthermore, 11 kinds of EPPPs were detected completely (100%) in the sediments and the concentration range and average concentration were 0.04-1.10 and 0.52 μg·kg-1. Among the above results, the EPPPs residue levels of water samples in the Yuqiao reservoir of Jixian county, Jiyunhe of New Binhai section and sediments in the Duliujian river basin of New Binhai section were the highest. Compared with other EPPPs, the concentrations of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, fenoprofen in the water and indomethacin, salicylic acid, florfenicol in sediments were high. In summary, EPPPs residues level of water in Tianjin was higher than other regions in China and other countries.
An Analysis of the Attitudes of Frontier Pastoral Herdsmen to the Grassland Ecological Protection Subsidy and Incentive Policies
KANG Xiao-hong
2019, 35(10):  1282-1288.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0244
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Based on the survey data obtained from 449 herdsmen of 9 typical animal husbandry counties in the pastoral areas of Inner Mongolia, logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the attitudes of different types of sample herdsmen to the grassland ecological reward policy and its influencing factors. The results of the study show that, majority of the herdsmen are in favor of the current grassland ecological protection subsidy and incentive policies and willing to continue to participate. The influence factors of different types of herdsmen's about subsidy and incentive attitudes are obviously different. Because the grassland ecological protection subsidy and incentive policies have more restrictions on the grazing behavior of the grazing-type pastoralists, it has a greater negative impact on the family income, family members' employment and social security. The pastoralist in this type have a lower acceptance of the current policy. The dependence of grass-animal balanced herdsmen on grassland is reduced compared with the grazing-free herdsmen. The higher the fairness of the herdsmen's criteria for the compensation standards, the wider the per capita grassland area of the herdsmen and the bigger the diversity of the index family livelihoods,the more willingness the herdsmen choose to continue to participate in the grassland ecological protection subsidy and incentive mechanism. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the herdsmen participation mechanism of subsidy and incentive, to find ways to increase the pastoral income and non-grazing income, and to make better the supporting mechanism to enhance the welfare of the grazing-type pastoralists.
Regional Differentiation of Mountainous Ecosystem Services and Ecological Compensation Thresholds in the Upstream of Minjiang River
2019, 35(10):  1289-1298.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0164
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The supply side and demand side of ecosystem services are the hot issues and frontier domains of geo-science research, and also the characterization of man-land relationship. The upstream of Minjiang River belongs to special physical geographical zones and fragile areas of Hengduan Mountains. The vertical differentiation of geographical environment, diversity of nationality, and fusion of economic and social environment impact the imbalance between the supply side and demand side of ecosystem services, and further create spatial location characteristics of ecosystem service compensation threshold. Focusing on the coexistence of dislocation on low economic density with high ecological surplus located at high semi-mountainous area and high economic density with high ecological deficit located at the upstream of Minjiang River, this research primarily explored regional differentiation laws on ecosystem functions as well as ecosystem services and the threshold of ecological compensation. It povides theoretical basis for ecological civilization in this study site. The results indicate that the regional differences of ecosystem services and ecological compensations were obvious in the upstream of Minjiang River during 1995-2010. The detailed information is as following:the ecosystem service values of grassland and cropland increased by 3.70×109 and 0.62×109 yuan in 2010 compared to those in 1995, respectively. However, the ecosystem service value of woodland decreased by 13.17×109 yuan in 2010 compared to that in 1995. The total ecosystem service value decreased due to the decreasing magnitude of ecosystem service value of woodland was larger than the increasing magnitude of ecosystem service values of grassland and cropland. Woodland and grassland contributed a lot to total ecosystem service value in the upstream of Minjiang River, and the ecosystem service values in eastern area were larger than those in western area from spatial distribution maps of the ecosystem service value. The positive values of ecological compensation based on population concentrated in the northwest and east of the upstream of Minjiang River, while the negative values concentrated in the vicinity of Heishui, Songpan and Lixian counties. The positive values of ecological compensation based on the village area concentrated in Songpan and Heishui counties, while the negative values concentrated near Maoxian and Wenchuan counties. The areas whose compreshensively corrected ecological compensations were negative concentrated in the northwest of the study area, while the areas with positive compreshensively corrected ecological compensations concentrated in Heishui, Songpan and Lixian counties. Theses achievements provide the foundation for a deeper appreciation of coupling relationship between ecosystem service and human welfare, and a watershed-scale solution act for rational allocating the ecological compensation in Tibetan and Qiang autonomous region.
Preliminary Analysis on Regeneration Effects of Gap Size in Two Coniferous Plantations
LIU Wei, WANG Min-biao, DU You-xin, YOU Gen-biao, WANG Jun-feng, LIAN Fa-liang , HE Xiao-yong
2019, 35(10):  1299-1306.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0256
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To clarify the effects of forest harvesting gap on the growth of 10 tree species planted and the regeneration of natural understory plants, 28 different size gaps (50-500 m2) were created and canopies were selected as controls in Pinus massoniana and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations with identical habitats in Baiyun Mountain. The basal diameter and height of 10 tree species planted and understory plant diversity were investigated among the different forest gaps. The results show that (1) 10 tree species grew generally better in P. massoniana than in C. lanceolata plantation according to the comprehensive growth traits. Liquidambar formosana, Sapindus mukorossi, Sapium discolor and Altingia gracilipes grew better than the other tree species in P. massoniana plantation. L. formosana, S. discolor, Taxus chinensis var. mairei, S. mukorossi and A. gracilipes grew better than the others in C. lanceolata plantation. (2) The growth of T. chinensis var. mairei was significantly influenced by forest types, especially for the height (P<0.01). The basal diameter and height of Schima superba were significantly influenced by gap size (P<0.05). The interaction between forest type and gap size markedly affected the growth of tree species except for Celtis sinensis, Phoebe bournei and Phoebe chekiangensis. (3) The species richness, Simpson ecological dominance indices and Shannon diversity indices of natural understory plants differed significantly across the different size gaps (P<0.05). These indices except for Simpson ecological dominance indices were significantly influenced by the plantation types (P<0.05). The resembling coefficients of natural regeneration plants between the different size gaps were between 0.4 and 0.9 in two plantations. The resembling coefficients between the different size gaps were larger than that between in the gaps and at the control in the same plantation. The medium gaps with the size of 250 m2 and the targeted tree species such as L. formosana, S. mukorossi, A. gracilipes and S. superba are recommended for broadleaved-oriented transformation of P. massoniana plantation. The large (500 m2) or small (50 m2) gaps and L. formosana, T. chinensis var. mairei, S. discolor, S. mukorossi and A. gracilipes are recommended for C. lanceolata plantation.
Variation of Flower Colors and Their Relationships With Anthocyanins in Cultivars of Camellia japonica
LI Xin-lei, WANG Jie, YIN Heng-fu, FAN Zheng-qi, LI Ji-yuan
2019, 35(10):  1307-1313.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0043
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The flower colors, anthocyanin components and contents in 22 cultivars of C. japonica, which were categorized into 4 color series including white, pink, red and dark red, were determined. Flower colors were measured by CIE L*a*b* scale, and anthocyanin components and contents were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight massspectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS).The relationship between the variation of flower colors and anthocyanin components was explored by multiple liner regression analyses, which provided a theoretical basis for flower color breeding of C.japonica.The results show that seven anthocyanins were detected in cultivars of C. japonica, including cyanidin-3-O-β-galactoside(Cy3Ga), cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside(Cy3G), cyanidin-3-O-[6-O-(E)-caffeoyl]-β-galactoside(Cy3GaECaf), cyanidin-3-O-[6-O-(E)-caffeoyl]-β-glucoside(Cy3GECaf),cyanidin-3-O-[6-O-(Z)-p-coumaroyl]-β-glucoside(Cy3GZpC), cyanidin-3-O-[6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-galactoside(Cy3GaEpC) and cyanidin-3-O-[6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-glucoside(Cy3GEpC). No anthocyanins were detected from white petals in cultivars of C. japonica, and the main anthocyanins from pink, red and dark red petals were Cy3G,Cy3GEpC and Cy3Ga. Total anthocyanin and the contents of Cy3G, Cy3GEpC and Cy3Ga from red petals were far higher than that from pink petals. Total anthocyanin and the contents of Cy3G, Cy3GEpC and Cy3Ga from dark red petals were far higher than that from red and pink petals. From pink, red to dark red, total anthocyanins and the main anthocyanins from petals in cultivars of C. japonica increased obviously, and the proportion of Cy3G and Cy3Ga also increased but that of Cy3GEpC decreased. It is concluded that Cy3G and Cy3GEpC were the main anthocyanins which determined the colors of petals in cultivars of C. japonica, and the accumulation of their contents enhanced the red color of petals.
Comparative Study on Butterfly Diversity and Niche Difference in Mountainous Region of Southern Shanxi Province
HAO Shu-lian, XUE Qi-qi, FENG Dan-dan, LI Xiao-fei, LIU Yang, ZHANG Zhi-wei, MEN Li-na
2019, 35(10):  1314-1321.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0663
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The role of butterflies in the ecological environment was analyzed in order to evaluate the relationships between butterfly species distribution and different habitats. Five primary habitats (evergreen coniferous forest, shrubs, deciduous broad-leaved forest, dry field, orchards) in southern Shanxi Province were selected through the study of the stratified random sampling, and the butterfly species were identified and the species number was statistically analyzed. A total of 4 242 individuals were collected in the study, representing 101 species in 65 genera of 5 families. The community diversity of butterflies in the study area was analyzed by Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index, Simpson dominance index and Margalef richness index, spatial niche breadth and niche overlap index of butterflies were calculated. The results show that the variation tendency of diversity index among butterfly families was Nymphalidae (3.174) > Lycaenidae (1.924) > Pieridae (1.630) > Hesperiidae (1.420) > Papilionidae (1.146). The variation trend of butterfly diversity index among different habitats was shrub (7.915) > deciduous broad-leaved forest (7.645) > evergreen coniferous forest (7.622) > orchard (6.904) > dry field (5.684). It indicated that butterfly species diversity was obviously different between different habitats. The spatial niche width of every butterfly family had no obvious difference (above 0.6), and the spatial niche overlap index between each 2 butterfly families had no obvious difference as well (above 0.9). It indicated that different butterfly families had no obvious difference on the occupied spatial resources.
Phylogenetic Diversity of Cyanophage psbA Gene in the Plateau Eutrophic Yilong Lake in Yunnan Province
LI Chun-xiao, LIU Ting-ting, LIU Yu-shan, LIU Li
2019, 35(10):  1322-1329.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0774
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Cyanophages, as a kind of peculiar viruse that infect specifically cyanobacteria, exists extensively in various aquatic environments. The gene psbA, encoding the D1 protein involved in photosynthesis reaction center, is a target gene of cyanophage, which not only reveals the genetic diversity of cyanophage, but also explores the relationship between the cyanophage and its host cyanobacteria. In this study, the plateau eutrophic Yilong Lake in Yunnan Province was taken as the research object. A total of 15 cyanophage psbA environmental sequences were obtained by using the psbA gene as a molecular marker from the concentrated water samples of Yilong Lake. Based on the cyanophage psbA sequence, phylogenetic tree was constructed, and the genetic diversity of cyanophage photosynthesis psbA gene in the water samples of Yilong Lake were analyzed. The results show that the psbA gene assemblage of the plateau eutrophic Yilong Lake in Yunnan Province are obviously different from those obtained from marine waters, other freshwater lakes and Japanese paddy floodwater.It is closer to evolutionary distance of paddy water in Northeast China, and the evolution is relatively independent. The novel psbA assembly of cyanophage was found in the plateau eutrophic Yilong Lake. For different seasons, the genetic diversity of psbA gene in cyanophage was more abundant in autumn.
Removal of Norfloxacin by Compound Bentonite Particles in a Fixed Bed Column
SUN Qian-yu, ZHOU Jun
2019, 35(10):  1330-1337.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0128
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The low-cost calcium-based bentonite modified by anionic and cationic surfactants was granulated and a particulate adsorbent was prepared by response surface optimization. The dynamic adsorption behavior of norfloxacin (NOR) in water was studied in a downflow fixed bed column. The effects of the contact time of empty bed, the height of the bed and pH value of the solution influent on the adsorption process were investigated. Considering the economy and high efficiency of the practical application, the optimal operating conditions of the adsorption column were selected in the experiment. The initial concentration of NOR was 2 mg·L-1, the solution pH was 3, the contact time of empty bed (EBCT) was 20 min, the bed height (H) was 15 cm, and the flow rate (Q) was 1.33 mL·min-1. The experimental results show that the removal rate of NOR can reach to more than 70% under these conditions. And the penetration time of NOR by the modified bentonite particles (C/S-Mt) was increased by 270 min. The maximum adsorption amount(qt) increased by about 910 μg while the equilibrium adsorption amount was about 330 μg·g-1 higher than the unmodified native soil particles (Ca-Mt). The performance of bed column was estimated by Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. The analysis indicate that the two models can accurately predict the adsorption quantity and the breakthrough curves, respectively.
Study on the Treatment of Urban Polluted Water by Immobilized Acinetobacter sp. T1 Bacteria
XIAO Yao, WU Chen-jie, JIANG Qing-ken, LAN Ji-rong, WU Jian-xun, SUN Yan, DU Dong-yun
2019, 35(10):  1338-1345.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0169
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Ammonia removal in urban polluted water and sediments was achieved by immobilized high-efficiency nitrogen-removing bacteria strain Acinetobacter sp. T1 using inorganic carrier materials. Zeolite, activated carbon and diatomite were compared so as to find the best carrier material. The preferred environmental conditions (temperature, pH, rotation speed, fixation time) for immobilizing bacteria T1 were studied and the performance of the immobilized bacteria under optimal condition for ammonia removal were tested by batch scale simulation experiments. Results show that due to its large specific surface area and high zeta potential, more bacteria were fixed onto diatomite. The immobilized bacteria using diatomite as carrier showed higher ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency. The optimal conditions for the immobilization of bacterial T1 were as follows:temperature of 35℃, pH of 8, shaking speed of 90 r·min-1 and fixation time of 24 h. Aeration-assisted immobilized bacteria experiment group showed highest ammonia removal efficiency during the simulation experiments. After 16 days of reaction, the COD, NH4+-N and TN concentrations in water decreased by 75.98%, 99.32% and 89.36%, respectively. The sediment TOC and TN contents decreased by 54.56% and 44.84%, respectively, and the sediment volume decreased by 14.93%.
Characteristics of Phosphorus Runoff Losses and Influencing Factors in Three Cultivated Soils
LIU Juan, ZHANG Shu-xiang, NING Dong-wei, ZHANG Nai-ming
2019, 35(10):  1346-1352.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0117
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Black soil, fluvo-aquic soil and red soil were the main cultivated soil types in China. A simulated rainfall experiment was conducted to study the effects of different rainfall intensity and phosphorus levels on phosphorus concentration and loss in the above-mentioned 3 kinds of soil types. The results show that:(1)The TP content in black soil, fluvo-aquic soil and red soil runoff ranged from 0.143 to 1.220 mg·L-1, and the TDP content ranged from 0.035 to 0.474 mg·L-1. The TP and TDP concentrations in different soil types were in the order of fluvo-aquic soil > red soil > black soil.(2) The concentration of phosphorus in runoff mainly depended on the content of available phosphorus in the surface soil. There was an exponential relationship between TP loss and soil phosphorus level. (3) The concentrations of TP and TDP in black soil, fluvo-aquic soil and red soil runoff increased with the rainfall intensity. There was a linear relationship between total phosphorus loss and rainfall intensity in different soil runoff. The linear relationship of fluvo-aquic soil was the best, followed by black soil and red soil. (4) The main form of phosphorus loss from surface runoff was granular.
Study on the Effect of Sulfur Materials on Immobilization of Cadmium in Contaminated Alkaline Farmland Soils
FU Yun-cong, ZHU Xiao-long, YUAN Cui, XIE Xiao-lu, YANG Guo-hang, LI Peng-xiang, LIU Chen, LIU Dai-huan
2019, 35(10):  1353-1360.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0106
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Immobilization experiments were performed to investigate the immobilization effect of the sulfur materials[calcium sulphide (CaS), sodium dithiocarbamate (DTCR) and 2,4,6-trimercaptotriazine (TMT55)] on reducing available cadmium (Cd) in contaminated alkaline farmland soils. The results show that the order of the DTPA available cadmium reduction efficiency of the three passivants in the two soils (from Xinxiang and Jiyuan in Henan Province) was TMT55 > DTCR > CaS, under the same conditions. In Xinxiang Cd contaminated soil (DTPA-Cd 1.56 mg·kg-1) after adding 0.10% (mass fraction) CaS, DTCR and TMT55, the available Cd content of the soil reduced by 21.15%, 48.71% and 41.69% after 30 days,respectively,compared with the controlled experiment. In Jiyuan Cd contaminated soil (DTPA-Cd 0.97 mg·kg-1) after adding 0.10% (mass fraction) CaS, DTCR and TMT55, the available Cd content of the soil reduced by 10.42%, 40.43% and 40.70% after 30 days,respectively, compared with the controlled experiment. DTCR and TMT55 had the advantages of low dosage and high efficiency compared with other materials. It indicates that DTCR and TMT55 are potential materials for remediation of Cd-contaminated alkaline farmland soil.