Table of Content

Volume 35 Issue 12
25 December 2019
Table of Contents
2019, 35(12):  0-0. 
Abstract ( 48 )   PDF (20743KB) ( 69 )  
Related Articles | Metrics
Systematic Review and Analysis of Eco-Efficiency: A Comparative Perspective Between Chinese and English Literatures
LIN En-hui, ZHENG Yi, CHEN Qiu-hua
2019, 35(12):  1497-1504.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0447
Abstract ( 299 )   HTML   PDF (5012KB) ( 395 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Eco-efficiency is an important index for evaluating the development of green economy. Improving eco-efficiency is an important way to promote the construction of ecological civilization. Based on 1 403 studies published on China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) and Web of Science, bibliometric methods have been applied to analyze the research development and hotspots of eco-efficiency literature in China and foreign countries considering the external and internal characteristics. The results show that the study of eco-efficiency has been developing rapidly in the world, and in which research institutions and researchers in China played an important role. In addition, the research perspectives of eco-efficiency are diversified. The evaluation methods of eco-efficiency, the combination with life cycle assessment theory, the combination with ecological footprint theory, the combination with industrial ecology, and agricultural eco-efficiency are the five hot topics. There are also significant differences in research level, theoretical basis, and research method preferences between Chinese and English literature. This paper quantitatively summarizes and refines the core issues of eco-efficiency research, which has important reference value for future studies of eco-efficiency.
Spatial Simulation Methods of Regional Forest Water Conservation Based on Observed Data: A Review
WU Xi, SHI Wen-jiao
2019, 35(12):  1505-1515.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0340
Abstract ( 278 )   HTML   PDF (1179KB) ( 288 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Due to global climatic change, increase in population, and scare of fresh water, forest water conservation play an important roles in interception, storage and redistribution of precipitation. Large-scale spatial estimations of forest water conservation have been mostly studied by using hydrology or remote sensing models, but there is a lack of spatial estimation of forest water conservation at a large scale based on observed data. This paper proposed the framework of the spatial prediction for forest water conservation at a large scale based on observed data at sites, and then investigated the factors affecting canopy interception, litter water-holding, soil storage and forest water conservation. Further, the methods of spatial simulation based on observed data were introduced, including regression model, machine learning and geostatistical methods and the combination of multiple methods. In addition, the problems, including method for measuring forest water conservation and the process of spatial simulation for forest water conservation based on observed data, were summarized. Finally, the future research orientation of forest water conservation in a large-scale region has been presented on the bases of observed data at three aspects, including selection of auxiliary variables, spatialization of different regions with different models and spatial analysis of dynamic forest water conservation in a large-scale region.
Advances in Physiological Mechanisms of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Induced Low Temperature Resistance in Plant
LI Shu-xin, YANG Wen-ying, ZHU Xian-can, WANG Ying-nan, WANG Jing-hong, LIN Ji-xiang
2019, 35(12):  1516-1523.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0524
Abstract ( 275 )   HTML   PDF (1112KB) ( 242 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Low temperature is one of the critical abiotic stress, which has an adverse effect on plant growth and development. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), an ancient kind of microorganism in soil, can constitute mutualistic associations with roots through huge mycelium network, to benefit absorbing nutrients from soil and improving plant nutrientional status, hence promoting plant growth and development and improving the low temperature tolerance. The possible mechanisms of AM symbiosis induced plant tolerance to low temperature include (1) activating the host plant's response systems to the environmental changes; (2) triggering the synthesis of biochemical substances from plants and AMF for regulating host plants' response to low temperature. Therefore, this work summarized the physiological and molecular mechanisms of AM induced plant tolerance to low temperature, including water uptake, changes of plasma membrane permeability and ROS scavenging, carbohydrate synthesis and translocation, N and P uptake, and secondary metabolites synthesis, and finally raised some perspectives, to provide scientific basis for further exploring the mechanisms of plant tolerance induction.
Controlling of Internal Phosphorus and Nitrogen Loading in Lake Sediment by Submerged Macrophytes and Its Application
HUANG Xiao-long, GUO Yan-min, ZHANG Yi-min, WU Chen-xi, LIU Jian-tong
2019, 35(12):  1524-1530.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0273
Abstract ( 235 )   HTML   PDF (937KB) ( 273 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
The mechanisms and effects of submerged macrophytes in controlling lake sediment nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) internal loading are described and analyzed. Submerged macrophytes can decrease nitrogen and phosphorus contents in the sediment and reduce nitrogen and phosphorus release through several mechanisms, such as growth and reproductive assimilation, promotion of microbial metabolism and decomposition, improvement of physical and chemical environment of sediments, and inhibition of sediment resuspension. Statistical results based on simulation and field studies show that the average N and P removed from sediment by submerged macrophyte was 1 136 and 387 mg·kg-1·a-1, respectively, which was positively related with the initial concentrations of pollutants in sediment. With submerged macrophyte,the inhibition rate of N and P release was reduced by 62.6% to 107.7%, and 41.2% to 253.8%, respectively, compared to no-plant area. The restoration of submerged macrophyte is an effective measure to control the internal loading, while the removal of N and P is affected by many factors. When the submerged plant recovery technique is applied, the appropriate species should be used and collocated reasonably. To achieve better control effects, restoration of submerge macrophytes should be used in combination with other measures in space and process flow.
Analysis and Simulation of the Spatial Autocorrelation Pattern in the Ecosystem Service Value of the Oasis Cities in Dry Areas
ZHU Zeng-yun, ALIMUJIANG Kasimu
2019, 35(12):  1531-1540.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0331
Abstract ( 211 )   HTML   PDF (3143KB) ( 215 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Based on the land use data extracted from remote sensing interpretation in Urumqi between 1995 and 2015, a prediction for the land use changes for the year 2025 and an ESV (ecosystem service value) assessment have been performed using the CA-Markov model. A further analysis of the distribution characteristics of spatial patterns in the ESV and the land use is made by means of the spatial statistical methods, such as the grid analysis, the spatial autocorrelation and Getis-Ord hot spot analysis. The relationship between the spatial autocorrelation in the ESV and that in the land use as well as the reason for the spatial distribution changes of the cold spots and the hot spots in the interannual variations are discussed. The change process of the high and low ESV values with respect to the center of gravity in the space is interpreted. The results show that:(1) Within the 30 years, certain differences had been presented among the ESV changes in different land use types in different periods, representing a fluctuation trend. However, a decreasing trend in the overall ESV was presented and the main reason for this is the decrease of the ESV provided by the cultivated lands, forests and grasslands. (2) Significant differences exist in the overall spatial distribution pattern of the ESV and, for many years, the areas with a high ESV value have been mainly distributed in the zones with a large woodland area in Urumqi County, while the areas with a low ESV value have been mainly concentrated in the zones that surround the four central districts of Urumqi (Tianshan District, Shaybak District, Shuimogou District and Toutunhe District). (3) The ESV in the study area has significant spatial positive autocorrelation and spatial clustering characteristics, and the high-high and low-low clustered distribution is highly coincident with the high-low ESV value areas. (4) The number of hot and cold spots in the ESV has been increasing year by year. The increase in the quantity of the hot spots is closely related to the ecological protection and restoration measures which Urumqi has vigorously implemented in the recent years. On the other hand, the increase in the quantity of the cold spots is of great concern, and this is closely related to the human activities such as the disorderly spread and expansion of urban built-up areas and land development.
Study on the Coupling Coordination of Economic-Transportation-Environment System in Shijiazhuang City
HAN Rui-ling, YANG Guang, ZHANG Xiao-yan, LU Zi
2019, 35(12):  1541-1549.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0241
Abstract ( 202 )   HTML   PDF (1133KB) ( 245 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Shijiazhuang City had serious air pollution problem. To study the coupling coordination relationship of environment, transportation and economy systems is of great significance for regional sustainable development. The coupling coordination model and the scissors difference method were selected to comprehensively analyze the degree of coupling coordination of economic-transportation-environmental system and the difference of evolution direction and rate among different systems in Shijiazhuang from 2000 to 2016. It has been found that the coupling coordination index of Shijiazhuang economic-transportation-environmental system increased from 0.42 to 0.77 from 2000 to 2016, which indicate that the coupling coordination relationship of the three systems in this city was gradually improved during the research period. From the perspective of development level, environment, transportation and economic systems scored 0.53, 0.39, and 0.35, respectively, indicating environmental system developed better than transportation and economic systems. From the perspective of evolution direction, the differences between economic and transportation system, and between transportation and environmental systems were gradually decreasing, while the differences between economic and environmental systems was gradually increasing. The smaller the difference were, the more consistency the two systems was. From the perspective of evolution rate, the three systems scored 0.01 (environment), -0.04 (economy) and -0.11 (transportation), respectively. The research shows that the environmental quality of Shijiazhuang has been improving rapidly, while the development of economy and transportation construction needed to speed up.
Optimization of Planting Structure in Xingyun Lake Basin Based on Planting Non-Point Source Pollution Control
ZHENG Tian-tian, ZHAO Xiao-qing, GU Ze-xian, PU Jun-wei, LU Fei-fei, MIAO Pei-pei
2019, 35(12):  1550-1556.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0781
Abstract ( 229 )   HTML   PDF (1616KB) ( 231 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Taking the minimum loss amount of chemical fertilizer as the objective function, and using the planting area, grain demand, economic situation and other aspects as the constraint conditions, the linear programming model was built to get the optimization results of planting structure of Xingyun Lake Basin in 2020 are as follows:(1) The economic crop's largest planting area about 11 069.93 hm2, and the fruit tree had the smallest area about 909.40 hm2 in 2005-2015. The planting area of gentle slope was much larger than that of steep slope. On the whole, the planting area of rice and dry crop decreased gradually in 2005-2015; the planting area of the economic crop increased gradually; and the planting area of the fruit tree showed a trend that increased at first and then stabilized. (2) After the optimization of the planting structure, the planting area of rice, dry crop, economic crop and fruit tree in Xingyun Lake Basin will be 3 471.56, 2 571.53, 7 966.92 and 2 149 hm2, respectively, in 2020. Comparing the situations in 2015, the planting area of rice, dry crop and fruit tree will increase by 1 276.49, 1 051.84 and 1 239.6 hm2, respectively, and the planting area of economic crop will decrease by 3 103.01 hm2. (3) In 2020, the loss amount of chemical fertilizer after the optimization of planting structure will be 633.79 t, which is 25.47% lower than that in 2015 (890.55 t) in Xingyun Lake Basin. In all kinds of pollutants, the loss amount of total nitrogen decreases most and those of total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen also decrease, while those of nitrate nitrogen and dissoluble phosphorus increase somewhat.
Study on the Impact of Sudden Pollution on Water Resources: A Case Study of Nanjing Section of Yangtze River
WANG Qing-qing, WU Hao, WANG La-chun, JI Xiao-min
2019, 35(12):  1557-1563.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0253
Abstract ( 200 )   HTML   PDF (1837KB) ( 232 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Sudden water pollution accident is a major threat to water quality of drinking water sources. In this study, the process of pollutant and transport was examined based on two-dimensional hydrodynamic and quality model simulations by taking the Nanjing section of the Yangtze River as an example. Two scenarios (i.e., industrial accident and ship accident) were set up to simulate the transport and diffusion of phenol during the dry season. The results show that in the industrial accident at Machahe, only Longtan water source was affected by 30.5 hours; while in the ship accident at the Yangtze River Third Bridge of Nanjing, all the five water sources were affected. Jiangpu-pukou water source was affected for the shortest time, 18 h and Longtan water source was affected for the longest time, 146 h. Downstream water source was affected for a longer period with the increase in the length of the polluted zone, which was mainly related to the tital action and the ramp terrain in the Nanjing section. The results can provide technical support for regulating water supply during sudden water pollution accidents and can serve as the basis for response to water source emergency.
Identification and Variation Characteristics of Typical Odorous Compounds in Rural Slow-Flow Water Bodies in Northern Jiangsu Province
GE Ran, FENG Qian, ZHAO Jia-nan, SUN Ya-qing, GUO Wen, ZHONG Tian-yi, CEN Cheng
2019, 35(12):  1564-1572.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0337
Abstract ( 189 )   HTML   PDF (1431KB) ( 181 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
In order to study the odor problems of slow-flow water bodies in rural areas, flavor profile analysis (FPA) was used to analyze the types and intensity of the odor in rural slow-flow water body in a rural area of northern Jiangsu Province. The main odorous compounds in slow-flow water bodies in this area were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The selective ion mass(SIM) monitoring mode detection methods for several typical odorant substances were established to detect the concentration of typical odorant substances in slowly flowing water and to analyze the seasonal and regional variation rules. The results show that:(1) the main odor types in the slow-flowing water in this area were mud, fish, putrefaction, mildew and grass, with occasional chemicals. The odor intensity of all water sample was the strongest in winter (≥ 8.5), and maintained around 4-8 in the rest of the seasons; (2) The odorant substances in the slow-flow water body were mainly dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide and 1-methylnaphthalene, with a small amount of dimethyl isoborphenol and geosmin, and some water samples also contained butylamide; (3) The seasonal variations of odorant substances in slow-flow water bodies were quite different, and the peak concentration of odorant substances appeared in different seasons.
Study on the Ecological Health Function of Fokienia hodginsii in Qishan Forest Park in Summer
WANG Qian, WANG Cheng, ZHANG Zhong-xia, XU Chao, GUO Jun-qi
2019, 35(12):  1573-1581.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0379
Abstract ( 201 )   HTML   PDF (1177KB) ( 163 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
The ecological health factors inside and outside of Fokienia hodginsii forest in Fujian Province in summer including the daily variation of human comfort, airborne particulate matter, plant organic volatiles, etc. were studied and observed. Based on the oper field test (OFT), the impact of the environment in Fokienia hodginsii forest on human health was simulated. The results show that:(1) The daily mean values of light intensity, wind speed and temperature outside the forest were 21.35%, 29.46% and 31.28% higher than those in the forest, and the relative humidity was 6.52% higher than that in the forest, respectively; (2) The concentrations of TSP and PM10 outside the forest were 27.67% and 31.68% higher than those in the forest, and the concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 were 60.46% and 58.82% higher than those in the forest, respectively;(3) The VOCs of Fokienia hodginsii forest were composed of 44 species, including alkane, olefins, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones and other substances. The relative content of alkanes was the highest, while that of lipids was the lowest;(4) By comparing the mice treated by Fokienia hodginsii forest with the control group, it was found that the mice's total distance of exercise, total distance of central grid exercise, time and times of central grid exercise increased significantly. The mice's body weight increased but the number of fecal particles decreased, indicating that the overall ecological environment of Fokienia hodginsii forest in summer was better and the forest environment had good health care functions.
The Leave PM Retention and Its Relation to Leaf Micro-Morphological Structure of the Major Tree Species in Tuyunguan Forest Park, Guiyang, China
LIU Yan-hui, DING Fang-jun, HOU Yi-ju, SHU De-yuan, ZHAO Wen-jun, CUI Ying-chun
2019, 35(12):  1582-1592.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0231
Abstract ( 216 )   HTML   PDF (2317KB) ( 256 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
To give a scientific basis for selecting proper tree species in city forests establishment, the difference in particulate matter (PM) retention and its dynamic progress of the leaves of major tree species were investigated in the Tuyunguan Forest Park of Guiyang City, Guizhou Province of China, and the impacts from the micro-morphological and structural characteristics of leaves was analyzed. The 12 tree species, including 5 coniferous and 7 broad-leaved tree species, were selected for study. The leaf samples were collected on the 3rd day after a rainfall event which can clean the leaves in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter of 2017; and on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th and 7th day after big rainfall events in the summer. The weight of total PM and its components with different size ranges (PM>10-100, PM>2.5-10, PM>1-2.5, and PM ≤ 1) absorbed on unit area of leaves were measured in the lab with re-suspension method. It shows that the daily PM retention (Md) decreased with rising time and following a power function. Such function was fitted for each tree species. The values of fitted parameters in these fitted functions can reflect the differences in the initial PM retention (M0), i.e. on the first day, and the decreasing rate of Md among the tree species studied. The tree species of Cupressus funebris, Pinus armandii, Cinnamomum camphora had a higher M0 but their Md decreased faster. The M0 for Pinus massoniana was higher but its daily PM retention decreased the slowest. The coniferous tree of Cunninghamia lanceolata and all other broadleaved tree species had both lower M0 and lower decreasing rate of Md. The PM retention ability and its components of different size ranges (TSP、PM10、PM2.5, PM1) were generally higher for coniferous tree species than for broad-leaved tree species (except Betula luminifera), and showed a remarked difference among tree species. The order of total PM retention of all tree species was:Cupressus funebris and > Pinus massoniana > Pinus armandii > Betula luminifera > Cunninghamia lanceolata > Cryptomeria japonica > Liquidambar formosana > Camptotheca acuminata > Camptotheca acuminata > Celtis sinensis > Ligustrum lucidum > Ginkgo biloba. All the tree species showed similar size distribution of the absorbed PM, with a mean ratio of 58.75%, 38.98%, 2.16% and 0.11% for the large, coarse, fine and super fine PM, respectively. The results of path analysis showed that the ratio of leaf circumference to leaf area was the most important factor affecting the daily PM retention. Secondly, the groove width of leaf surface (Wg) has a major impact on the retention capacity of large and coarse particles. The stomatal opening (Os) and stomata opening area (Aso) were the main factors affecting the retention capacity of fine particles. The Wg and the stomatal opening area per unit leaf surface (Sso) were the main factors affecting the retention of super fine particles. It seems that the leaves with smaller area, more complex form (with larger ratio of leaf circumference to leaf area), bigger groove width and larger stomatal opening size, will have a higher PM retention. The differences in the PM retention and its temporal dynamics should be considered when selecting the proper tree species for establishing city forests. The tree species with higher or lower PM retention ability should be rightly selected according to the different protection requirement against the air PM pollution.
Study on the Efficiency and Influencing Factors of Xiniu Fishway in the Lianjiang River
LI Jie, LI Xin-hui, ZHU Shu-li, LI Yue-fei, WU Zhi, YANG Ji-ping, PENG Song-yao, ZHANG Gai
2019, 35(12):  1593-1600.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0894
Abstract ( 249 )   HTML   PDF (1242KB) ( 172 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
The Xiniu Fishway in Guangdong Province was the first fishway added to a major dam in southern China. To investigate the effectiveness of this fishway, the web method and plugging method were employed for a total of 12 times from January to December in 2013. In total, 41 species of fish, belonging to 33 genera, 9 families and 4 orders, were captured. Small-sized species, such as Squalidus argentatus, Microphysogobio kiatingensis and Rhinogobius giurinus, were dominant. The fish number and species differed greatly between seasons and were significantly higher in April, May and June than in other months. A hierarchical scaling of the fish community in different months separated the communities into three clusters:group Ⅰ occurred in January, February, March, September and October; group Ⅱ in April, May, June, July and August; and group Ⅲ in November and December. The index of fish diversity (H') ranged between 0.83 and 1.95, with the maximum value for August and the minimum value for January. The index of fish species richness (D') ranged between 0.93 and 3.00, with maximum and minimum values for May and January, respectively. Redundancy analysis was used to describe the relationship between the fish community and associated environmental factors in each month. Water velocity, runoff, dam level and water transparency all impacted the success of the fishway (P<0.05).
Effect of Coffee Cultivation Patterns on Ant Diversity
YU Xiao-yu, LU Zhi-xing, LI Qiao, YAN Di, CHEN You-qing
2019, 35(12):  1601-1609.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0348
Abstract ( 311 )   HTML   PDF (1125KB) ( 269 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
There is an urgent need for coffee planters in Yunnan Province, China to create greenly organic coffee plantations which could balance the ecological and the economic benefits. This study explored the effect of coffee cultivation pattern on ant biodiversity by measuring diversity in different coffee plantations. Using pitfall traps, the ants in pure coffee plantations (K), Dalbergia obtusifolia-coffee mixed forests (DK), Dalbergia obtusifolia-corn mixed forests (DY) and rubber-coffee mixed forests (XK) were sampled twice in September 2015 and August 2016. Ant diversity, structural similarity and indicator species in the four habitats were calculated. There were significant differences in species richness, abundance and ACE(abundance-base coverage estimator)among the four types of habitats. The ant abundance was highest in DK, followed by K, DY and XK; while species richness and ACE were highest in DK, followed by DY, K and XK (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in species richness, abundance and ACE for canopy-foraging ants in the 4 sites (P>0.05). Nevertheless, the significant difference in community structure was detected for ground-foraging ants and canopy-foraging ants in the 4 sites. Moreover, for each site, one indicator species was detected, with Lepisiota capensis in K habitats, Tetramorium ciliatum in DK habitats, Tetramorium wroughtonii in DY habitats and Crematogaster ferrarii in XK habitats. In conclusion, pure coffee plantations significantly negatively affected ant diversity, while coffee agroforestry was higher with ant diversity than coffee monoculture. Moreover, coffee agroforestry with native trees as shade trees contributed to the conservation of ants.
Effects of Applying Lychee Biochar on the Absorption, Accumulation of Lead, Cadmium and Arsenic in Sunflower Plants in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil
LIU Jun, ZHU Yu, LI Zhi-liang, ZENG Xian-ling, GUAN Qing-lian, HU Jing-song, ZHU Yun-hua, XIE Hong-yan, LI Yin-yin, CAI Yuan-song, WANG Jin-xia, PENG Cui-ying
2019, 35(12):  1610-1616.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2018.0861
Abstract ( 361 )   HTML   PDF (1118KB) ( 272 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Different amounts of lychee biochar (2.5%, 5% and 10%) were added to heavy metal contaminated soils, with the purposes to analyze and compare the effects of biochar addition on the biomass of sunflower plants and accumulation and distribution of Pb, Cd and As in the sunflower plant and organ. The primary results of the experiments are as follows:With increasing amount of biochar, the biomass of sunflower plants increased significantly. At the addition of 5%, the biomass of sunflower plants reached the maximum, but excessive biochar inhibited the growth of sunflower. The addition of biochar enhanced the ability of sunflower to repair heavy metal contaminated soil. The total amount of Pb, Cd and As accumulated in sunflower plants increased significantly compared to the control group. The increase ranges were 22.90%-58.92%, 15.76%-42.25% and 67.92%-109.78% for Pb, Cd, As, respectively. The addition of biochar in heavy metal contaminated soil significantly increased the contents of Pb, Cd and As in leaves and receptacles of sunflower, but the contents in roots, stems and seeds decreased significantly with the increase of biochar. The contents of Pb, Cd and As in sunflower seeds decreased by 78.13%, 46.18% and 50.23%, respectively, compared to the control group. Although application of biochar to the contaminated soils could reduce effectively heavy metal contents in sunflower seeds, Pb and Cd contents in sunflower seeds were still higher than the contamination limit in the National Food Safety Standards (GB 2762-2017) in nuts and seeds (0.2 and 0.5 mg·kg-1, respectively). It is not edible and can be used as a bio-energy material.
The Accumulation Kinetics of Phytolacca americana Accumulating Cadmium in Soil and Its Response to Fertilization
WANG Qi, ZHANG Zhen-hua, WANG Chang-yong, ZHANG Di-ni
2019, 35(12):  1617-1625.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0421
Abstract ( 177 )   HTML   PDF (1225KB) ( 165 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Greenhouse pot-culture experiments with different concentration and fertilization treatments were carried out to study the kinetics of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in Phytolacca americana and the effect of ammonium sulfate[(NH4)2SO4] and urea (CH4N2O) as nitrogen fertilizer and potassium chloride (KCl) as potassium fertilizer on plant growth and Cd accumulation in P. americana. When the Cd concentration in soil was 10 mg·kg-1, P. americana showed the highest bioaccumulation factor (BCF, 10.37) and transfer factor (TF, 2.78). The highest accumulation rate (21.1 μg·d-1) and uptake rate constant[(0.21±0.01) d-1] were found during the period of 15 days to 30 days. The absorption rate constant decreases with the increasing exposure time:ku,15 d[(0.35±0.02) d-1] > ku,30 d[(0.21±0.01) d-1] > ku,60 d[0.11±0.01) d-1] > ku,90 d[(0.09±0.01) d-1]. When the (NH4)2SO4 and CH4N2O concentration was 400 mg·kg-1 as nitrogen fertilizer, it increased by 183.6% and 142.3% Cd content in the shoots of P. americana, about 165.3% and 150.4% biomass and about 478.7% and 337.3% Cd accumulation in tissues of P. americana respectively. Although KCl could significantly increase Cd concentrations by 264.4% when KCl concentration was 600 mg·kg-1, it could only increase by about 1.4% biomass of P. americana which resulting in the Cd accumulation in tissues of P. americana treated by potassium fertilizer to be lower than treated by nitrogen fertilizer.
Optimization of Preparation Conditions for Biochar-Loaded Nano-Zero-Valent Iron With Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
WANG Xiang, DENG Shao-po, LI Chuan, WAN Jin-zhong
2019, 35(12):  1626-1632.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0554
Abstract ( 180 )   HTML   PDF (1802KB) ( 236 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
The peanut shell biochar-loaded nano-zero-valent iron material (nZVI/BC) was prepared by liquid phase reduction method. The structural properties of the material were obtained by elemental analysis, specific surface area and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of nZVI/BC materials on the removal of pollutants in simulated groundwater prepared by mixing three common chlorinated organic pollutants (chloroform, chlorobenzene, trichloroethylene) was studied. The results show that the BC yield of 300℃ pyrolysis is up to 44.07%, and the structure is relatively intact. The nZVI has a uniform load on the surface of the peanut shell BC, and there is no large agglomeration, showing a chain structure. When the dosage is the same, the composite with carbon to iron ratio of 2:1 has better effect on the overall removal of mixed pollutants. The removal rate of chloroform is 66.59%, trichloroethylene is 72.40%, and chlorobenzene is 74.85%.