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Table of Content

Volume 36 Issue 11
25 November 2020
Analysis of Bird Diversity Variation in Poyang Lake Based on Optimized Living Planet Index
LIU Wei, LI Hang, YI Jian-feng, SHAO Ming-qin, LIU Guan-hua, XU Hai-gen, ZHANG Ri-quan
2020, 36(11):  1369-1374.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0050
Abstract ( 324 )   HTML ( 20)   PDF (1242KB) ( 214 )  
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The study focuses on the optimization of living planet index (LPI) to analyze the variation of biodiversity in fine scale. Comentropy and logarithm were utilized to generate these new indexes (LPIN1 and LPIN2). Using bootstrap method with Wilcoxon symbol rank test and 95% confidence interval, these optimized indexes were compared among different years. Based on the data on continuous bird monitoring in Poyang Lake from 2011 to 2017, the diversity of bird community was obtained by conventional method, LPI, LPIN1 and LPIN2. Results demonstrate that the two optimized indexes rose by 5% and ecosystem in Poyang Lake was stable. Besides, LPI index rose by 53%, which is not within the reasonable variation range of diversity index in Poyang Lake. Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index indicate that the biodiversity was stable among different years, but failed to reflect the variation of the index. In contrast, two optimized new indexes can better delineate the variation trend of biodiversity in a fine scale and reflect the health of ecosystems in the Poyang Lake.
Studies on the Diversity of Breeding Birds in the Desert of East Alxa,Inner Mongolia
LI Jia-qi, ZHAO Wei, WAN Ya-qiong, QI Yue, WANG Xiao-ning
2020, 36(11):  1375-1380.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.1020
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In this study, the richness and abundance of birds in the breeding season (May and June) from 2016 to 2018 were surveyed in the western parts of Alxa-Ordos Biodiversity Center using line transect and fixed-radius point count. In total, 92 bird species belonging to 15 orders, 37 families were recorded, which include 35 residents, 39 summer migrants, 17 passing birds and one winter migrant. Seven species are listed in the list of national second-class protected wildlife, including Pernis ptilorhyncus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Accipiter nisus, Buteo japonicus, Buteo hemilasius and Milvus migrans. The Shannon-Wiener index was the highest in farmland but the lowest in desert, so did the Pielou index and the Margalef index. The results show that the birds were mainly distributed in ecosystems of farmland and steppe, while seldom occurred in desert. The highest community similarity was found between desert and steppe, whereas the community similarity between forest and any other ecosystems in Helanshan was generally lower. Except wetland, bird communities showed high similarity in other habitats among different years. It was also found that, farmland plays a key role in the maintenance of bird diversity in desert regions, due to the high heterogeneity and the stable water supply. In contrast, smaller wetlands have limited functions in the same aspect as a result of the seasonal drought.
Diversity and Distribution of Breeding Birds in the Surrounding Areas of Lhasa, Tibet, China
LIU Yan-chao, LIU Shan-si, YANG Le
2020, 36(11):  1381-1387.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0177
Abstract ( 308 )   HTML ( 19)   PDF (876KB) ( 207 )  
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Diversity and distribution of breeding birds of 8 regions in the surrounding areas of Lhasa was surveyed in May and June of each year from 2016 to 2019 using the line transect method. A total of 103 species that belonged to 35 families and 15 orders were recorded, which accounted for 20.94% of the total birds species in Tibet, China. Among them, 60 species from 18 families of Passerines were accounted for 58.25% of the total surveyed birds species. In different habitats, shrub grassland had the most bird species with 74 birds species, the habitat near the river was the highest in terms of bird number, diversity index, evenness index and dominance index. In different regions, Dafo Island had the most breeding bird species, Qushui County in Lhasa River were the highest in terms of bird diversity index, evenness index and dominance index. In different breeding periods, the number of species, individual numbers and diversity index in the early period of breeding were slightly higher than those in the late period of breeding. Jaccard index show that the similarity index of breeding birds was higher where the habitat environmental conditions were similar. The breeding bird species gradually increased from 2016 to 2018, and decreased significantly in 2019, and the number of surveyed bird species in 2019 was the lowest within the four years. It is of great significance to carry out the population survey of breeding birds in Lhasa for protecting the diversity of breeding birds in Tibet.
Study on Bird Species Diversity in Gansu Kongtong Mountain in Summer From 2016 to 2018
MA Dong-hui, LI Jian-liang, LIU Wei, LU Meng-jie, BAO Xin-kang, YI Jian-feng
2020, 36(11):  1388-1394.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.1067
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Avian biodiversity is one of the most important components of biodiversity. The population dynamics of birds change following climate and ecology. Kongtong Mountain in Gansu Province is close to the west of Qinling Mountains, which is known to divide the zoogeographic fauna of birds into north and south. Long-term bird diversity monitoring in this area is vital for understanding the trend of species dispersal under climate change in the north. The population and distribution of birds in this area were investigated by using line transect method in late April and late May in 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Simpson diversity index, Pielou evenness index, and Berger-Parker dominance index were calculated in Excel 2013. A Chord Diagram of bird dominance with different habitats in R 3.5.3 was also made. The results show that: (1)108 bird species were recorded (82 in 2016, 78 in 2017 and 85 in 2018). (2) The diversity index and evenness index of bird community were the highest in deciduous broad-leaved forest habitat, and the lowest in rural habitat. (3) Regarding the composition of birds fauna, 73 species belong to cosmopolitan species (67.59%), 23 Palaearctic realm species (21.30%) and 10 Oriental realm species (9.26%). The summer avifauna in Kongtong Mountain differs from the surrounding areas. Meanwhile, the composition of bird species in this zone had no significant change across years.
Community Structure and Diversity of Overwintering Waterbird in Coastal Wetlands of Yantai City
WANG Li-ting, LIU He, LIU Wei, WANG Yi-yan, XU Cui-ping, LI Xin-yang, HUANG Qing-rong, SUN Hu-shan, YI Jian-feng
2020, 36(11):  1395-1402.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0874
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The expansive coastal wetlands in the eastern part of Yantai City are important resting place on the way of migration and wintering sites for many waterbirds. Community and diversity of the overwintering waterbird in Puti Bay of Yangma Island and estuaries of Qinshui River, Yuniao River and Xin'an River Estuary were evaluated by means of zoning direct counting method from November to February of each year from 2017 to 2019. 6 orders 10 families and 48 species were recorded. The most abundant order is Charadriiformes accounting for 45.83% of total recorded species, followed by Anseriformes of 35.42%. Laridae, Anatidae, Scolopacidae, Podicipedidae and Ardeidae consist the most majority and account for 99.00% of the total recorded species. Of note, one first-class (Larus relictus) and two second-class (Cygnus Cygnus and C. columbianus) national protected birds were recorded. There are 9 dominant species during the stable period of overwintering (December to February), and Numenius arquata has been listed as threatened species by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The number of recorded waterbird species of 2017-2018 was the most during the investigation, and moderate community similarity was determined among four investigated regions.
A Preliminary Study on Wintering Waterbirds Diversity and Trend of Sub Lakes in Jiangxi Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve
YU Ding-kun, XU Zhi-wen, LIU Wei, QI Hong-yan, ZHAN Hui-ying, LUO Hao, LIU Guan-hua, YI Jian-feng
2020, 36(11):  1403-1409.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.1058
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The diversity of wintering waterbirds in the nine sub lakes of Jiangxi Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve was investigated during the wintering periods from 2011 to 2019 by using direct counting method. A total of 74 species of waterbirds belonging to 13 families 6 orders were recorded and the average quantity was (148.5±67.0) thousand individuals in wintering period. There were 4 species (Grus leucogeranus, Grus monacha, Ciconia nigra, Mergus squamatus), that indexed as the first-class of national protected bird and 6 species indexed as second-class of national protected bird in the study area. During the eight wintering periods, the wintering period of 2016-2017 was the highest with 56 waterbirds species and 253.3 thousand individuals. While the wintering period of 2012-2013 was the lowest with 27 species and 23.8 thousand individuals. Among the nine sub lakes, the number of species at Dachahu Lake (24.25 species) was the highest, followed by Shahu Lake (23.75 species), and Meixihu Lake (9.13 species) was the lowest. The number of individuals at Dahuchi Lake (46 875.38 individuals) was the highest, followed by Dachahu Lake (45 749.63 individuals), and the lowest was Meixihu Lake (2 131.13 individuals). Both of the Shannon-Wiener diversity (H') and the Pielou evenness index (J') of waterbirds at Shahu Lake (H'=2.18±0.30, J'=0.72±0.08) were the highest, and both of them at Zhonghuchi Lake (H'=1.10±0.68, J'=0.45±0.21) were the lowest. Based on the results and current situation, relevant proposals for conservation and management of bird diversity in Jiangxi Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve were offered.
Species Diversity of Wintering Waterbirds Along Yarlung Zangbo River and Its Three Branches in Tibet
ZHOU Sheng-ling, LIU Shan-si, LI Ji-rong, YANG Le
2020, 36(11):  1410-1415.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0025
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This study was carried out along the middle and lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River and its tributaries of Nianchu River, Lhasa River and the Niyang River during wintering seasons of 2014 to 2018, as in total, 37 species of waterbirds were recorded and they were belonging to 7 orders and 11 families, which accounted for 7.52% of total species of birds in Tibet. The avifauna was mainly conducted by the Palaearctic species and there were 28 species of birds in total (75.68%), 8 species of birds were belonging to the Cosmopolitan (21.62%), and there was Only the Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) attribute to the Oriental realm species. There were 25 species of winter visitors (67.57%), and only 12 species of resident birds (32.43%). Only 1 species, black necked crane (Grus nigricollis) was the classⅠnational key protected bird in this study. There were 4 species of class Ⅱnational protected birds species-common crane (Grus grus), demoiselle (Anthropoides virgo), northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) and great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus); The vulnerable species are the black necked crane (Grus nigricollis) and the common pochard (Aythya ferina). The endangered species include the ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca), northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) and eastern spot-billed duck (Anas poecilorhyncha). During the recent five years, the number of species was continuously increasing (F=9.818, P=0.048), especially with the order of Anseriformes (F=36.75, P=0.009); Population of wintering waterbirds showed a trend of decline in 2018 (F=2.959, P=0.184). The major existing threats could be preyed by stray animals, and human disturbance, changes in agricultural practices and the impact of tourism development. According to the existing threat factors and the current situation of wintering waterbird resources, so as some suggestions are put forward for bird protection in this area; to strengthen the systematic research on the habitat and foraging grounds of wintering waterbirds.
The New Record of Tephrodornis virgatus in Zhejiang Province
WEN Chao-ran, CHEN Guang-hui, JIN Wei, ZHOU Jia-jun, LIU Bao-quan
2020, 36(11):  1416-1417.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0557
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On February 2nd, 2019, during a bird survey in Tongling Mountain National Forest Park in Wencheng County, Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, a photograph of Passeriformes was taken in Shanpingkeng, Tuojia Village (119°52'14.894 4" N, 27°45'10.976 4" E) which is to the south of the park. After verification, it was identified as Large Woodshrike (Tephrodornis virgatus). The vegetation type of the habitat where it is located is mainly evergreen broad-leaved forest, and there are water sources nearby. This is a new record in Zhejiang Province, and it is also the most northern distribution record of Large Woodshrike in East China.
Partial Albino Silky Starling Found in Yuanjiang, Hunan Province
HU Ke, CAO Yue, YI Jian-feng, LI Yuan, LI Jian-zhi, YANG Dao-de
2020, 36(11):  1418-1419.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0055
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On December 29, 2019, a case of albino silky starling was found in the beach of Chebian Lake, Yuanjiang City, Hunan Province. Part of the bird's feather was albino, so we judge it as a partial albinism individual. According to the feather color of its head, it was judged as female. This is the first time to find albino silky starling in the world. The cause of albinism and its physiological and biochemical effect on birds need to be further studied.
Prediction ofPotential Geographic Distribution of Lantana camara in China Using Maxent Model and GIS
ZHANG Hua-wei, ZHAO Jian, YAN Bo-jie, ZOU Jie, LI Zhi-peng
2020, 36(11):  1420-1427.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0956
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As one of the 100 most destructive invasive global species, Lantana camara has seriously endangered the biodiversity in some areas of southern China. Based on 479 distribution record points, bioclimatic variables and topographic factors of Lantana camara in China, its potential suitable distribution area in China has been predicted by maximum entropy model (Maxent) and geographic information system (GIS). The results show that: (1) Taking the Qin Ling-Huai He line as the boundary, the suitable distribution areas of Lantana camara are mainly distributed in southern China, in which Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Fujian, Hainan and southwestern Yunnan belong to the highly suitable distribution areas of Lantana camara, and the areas accounts for 8.6% of the national land surface; Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan and Chongqing and other areas belong to moderate growth areas, accounting for 10.1% of the national land surface; The proportion of low-adaptive area and non-suitable distribution area accounted for 27.8% and 53.5% of the national land surface, respectively. Under the projected future climate scenario of 2040-2060, the total suitable distribution area of Lantana camara would increase by 1.6 percentage point compared with 1970-2000. (2) The main climatic factor affecting the distribution of Lantana camara is the lowest temperature in the coldest month, followed by the seasonal variation coefficient of temperature and the average annual precipitation. (3) Calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve), the average value of the area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.953 and the standard deviation was 0.006, which indicate that the Maxent model is reliable in predicting the suitable distribution area of Lantana camara. The invasion and spread of Lantana camara in China has not yet reached the maximum range of the predicted suitable zone, and it is still possible to continue to spread.
Analysis of Spatio-temporal Dynamical Change and Landscape Characteristics of Mangroves and Spartina alterniflora in Fujian Based on Satellite Imageries From 1999 to 2018
PAN Wei-hua, CHEN Jia-jin, WANG Yan
2020, 36(11):  1428-1436.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0487
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Mangroves and Spartina alterniflora are important coastal wetland vegetation resources in Fujian. Identifying the spatio-temporal distribution and evolution characteristics of mangroves and Spartina alterniflora is of great significance for the safety of coastal ecological environment. Based on the data of multi-source satellite imageries such as Landsat-5 TM, Landsat-7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OIL, Quickbird and GF-1 imageries from 1999 to 2018, the spatial distribution and dynamical change of mangroves and Spartina alterniflora were studied and analyzed using the methods of image processing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning system (GPS) technology and field investigations. The changes of landscape structure and characteristics were analyzed and evaluated by adopting the aspects of "patch-corridor-matrix" pattern and landscape ecology index. The results show that: (1) The total areas of mangroves and Spartina alterniflora in Fujian grew rapidly from 1999 to 2018, the increased area of mangroves and Spartina alterniflora was 477.3 and 2 647.81 hm2, respectively. The annual growth rate of mangroves and Spartina alterniflora were dropped significantly, the annual growth rate of Spartina alterniflora was greater than that of mangroves in the mangrove reserve. (2) The number of the big patches (≥20 hm2) was decreased by 3.39% between 1999 and 2018, while that of the small patches (<20 hm2) was increased by 18.03%. The degree of fragmentation of wetland landscape had increased and the instability of wetland landscape construction increased gradually during the past 20 years. (3) The proportions of based pattern in most main sea were decreased except for Sansha Bay, and the wetland landscape pattern tended to be heterogeneous (i. e., increased fragmentation and decreased aggregation of tidal flat). In the past 20 years, Spartina alterniflora occupied the dominant position in the northern sea of Fujian, and Spartina alterniflora competed with mangroves in southern sea of Fujian. Moreover, Spartina alterniflora had invaded the core areas of mangroves in nature reserve, and actions should be taken to clean it away. The research results can provide foundational data and theoretical support for mangrove protection and Spartina alterniflora management.
Spatial Distribution of Chromium Content in Soil and Its Spatial Correlation With Land Use Type Based on Information Entropy
LI Xiu-xia, ZHU Wei, ZHANG Zi-hao, HU Yi-ning
2020, 36(11):  1437-1443.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0068
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Chromium in soil is a typical toxic and harmful heavy metal element, and its content in soil is closely related to natural conditions and human activities. A quantitative spatial correlation analysis between human activities and Cr content in soil will provide references for prevention programs and governance decisions of regional heavy metal pollution. Based on the data collection of land use types and heavy metal content in soil, the spatial distribution of chromium content in the soil of Jiangning Economic and Technological Development Zone was obtained based on the GIS spatial analysis function. By introducing the concept of information entropy, a quantitative approach studying on the correlation between chromium content in soil and land use types was established. The results show that: qualitatively, the spatial distribution of chromium content in soil shows obvious regional differentiation in the study area; quantitatively, the spatial correlation coefficient K of chromium content in soil and land use type was 0.13 in the area, and there is a certain spatial correlation between them. But the K value is far less than 1, indicating that the land use type is not the only factor or the dominant factor affecting the chromium content. When applying this method, attention should be paid to the spatial scale applicability of variables. If both variables show obvious spatial differentiation on a certain spatial scale, the method is applicable, and the higher the data accuracy, the more reliable the analysis results obtained; If one or two variables have no obvious spatial differentiation on the research scale, the correlation calculated by this method will approach zero.
Prediction and Scenario Simulation of Energy Carbon Emission Peak in Xinjiang Under the Background of Environmental Regulation
LI Li, DONG Bang-bang, JING Pan
2020, 36(11):  1444-1452.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0903
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From the perspective of environmental regulation, this research predicted the carbon emissions of energy consumption in Xinjiang from 2017 to 2030, and analyzed its impacts on carbon emission peaks, by applying the peak model and the scenario simulation method. Nine development models were set under the weak, medium and strong environmental regulation intensity scenarios to analyze the impact of environmental regulation on energy carbon emission peaks. The results of the research show that: (1) In the baseline scenario, the trend of the total carbon emission in Xinjiang is increasing, therefore, it will be hard to achieve the carbon emission peak target by 2030; (2) In the weak scenario, the carbon emissions of energy consumption in 2030 with the three development models of high, high-medium, high-low are 30 193.78×104, 28 156.05×104 and 26 244.80×104 t, respectively; (3) In the medium and strong scenarios, the carbon emission peaks will be achieved in 2025 of the medium-low development model and in 2020 of the low-high development models with the peak quotas to be 20 682.63×104 and 19 050.03×104 t and the per capita GDPs to be 6.31×104 and 5.13×104 yuan, respectively. Among the nine development models, the target on carbon emission peak could only be achieved with the medium-low, low-high development models, which indicating that the implementation of strict environmental regulations can effectively reduce the carbon emissions of energy consumption in Xinjiang, and accelerate the achievement of the target on carbon emission peak.
The Accumulation and Adsorption of Phosphorus in Vegetable Soils and the Risk of Soil Phosphorus Loss in Lingshui County of Hainan, China
YANG Jie, ZHENG Long, SHAO Shuang-shuang, FAN Man-man, CHENG Shu-yan, ZHANG Huan, GAO Chao
2020, 36(11):  1453-1459.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0977
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The accumulation and adsorption characteristics of phosphorus (P) in tropical vegetable soils were studied to assess the risk of soil P loss from different long-term vagetable cultivation systems in Lingshui County, Hainan Province. The results indicate that vegetable/cereal crop rotation system had significant higher P concentration than other systems, and its available P concentration was normally higher than 30 mg·kg-1. Deficient level of P was identified for the single-cereal cropped soil, whose available P level was commonly lower than 22 mg·kg-1. It has also been observed that 25.39% of the sampled soils revealed available P levels lower than 3 mg·kg-1. The overall capacity of P absorption was low for most of the soils, mainly due to their low clay and amorphous iron oxide concentrations. More than 80% of the samples' P absorption index (PSI) were lower than 30, indicating high P loss risks. The latosol had the highest PSI value, followed by paddy soil and coastal sandy soil. PSI was significantly and positively correlated with the contents of organic matter and amorphous iron. The southeastern vegetable area was identified as the key area of P loss because of its high available P concentration but low PSI level (PSI<15). In addition, implementating fertilizer reduction technology, reinforcing the control of P loss in the key areas and shortening the interval of vegetable rotation cycle were effective approaches to the control of non-point source P pollution in tropical vegetable area.
Effect of Hydraulic Disturbance on Re-release of Heavy Metals in Estuarine Sediments
LIU Xiao-zhu, LIU Qun-qun, WANG Wen-jing, SHENG Yan-qing
2020, 36(11):  1460-1467.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.1009
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Sediment re-suspension caused by hydraulic disturbances may result in the release of heavy metals from the sediments, producing potential environmental risks. In order to investigate the effects of first and secondary suspension on releases of Cu, Cd, and Cr in estuarine sediments, a series of experiments were performed by simulated hydraulic disturbances. Based on the incipient motion of sediment transportation, three disturbance intensities with 100, 160, and 240 r·min-1 were conducted. The results indicate that disturbance could cause the large-size particles to be broken into small-size particles, increasing the clay proportion in sediment. After suspension, the heavy metals in sediment would be released again into the overlying water. The peak values of Cu in the overlying water reached 36 μg·L-1 under 240 r·min-1. However, Cd release peaked at low disturbance (100 r·min-1), which was higher than those under 160 and 240 r·min-1. Cu in sediment was dominated by acid fraction (49.3%) and residue fraction (30.5%), while Cd was dominated by acid fraction (68.2%) with the shortest time to peak concentration in overlying water compared to other metals. For Cr, residual fraction was the dominant one (82.7%), which was relatively stable, so the release variations kept in a narrow range under three different disturbances intensities. After the first suspension, all heavy metals presented continuous release tendency. However, the peak concentration of Cu after secondary suspension was higher than that in first suspension, while contrary phenomena were observed for Cd and Cr, suggesting Cu release was sensitive to secondary suspension. The result of heavy metal fractions suggests that heavy metal release would be greatly influenced by their geochemical fractions. Overall, acid fraction presented high sensitivity to disturbances, and intensive disturbances enhanced the oxidation of the oxidation fraction heavy metals, increasing the potential risk of heavy metal release.
Adsorption Characteristics of Cd2+ and Pb2+ in Wastewater by 4 Agricultural Wastes
YANG Lan-qing, ZHANG Shi-rong, PENG Ya-xi, WANG Gui-yin, XU Xiao-xun
2020, 36(11):  1468-1476.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0130
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In order to discuss the adsorption characteristics of different agricultural wastes on Cd2+ and Pb2+ in wastewater, the powder of peanut straw (HG), sunflower faceplate (KP), cotton husk (MK) and cotton straw (MG) were selected for the study. The studied adsorption characteristics include dosage, solution pH, adsorption time, initial solution concentration and ionic strength. The results show that the adsorption capacities of Cd2+ and Pb2+ by the peanut straw, sunflower faceplate and cotton husk decreased exponentially or logarithmically when the dosage increased from 0.025 g to 0.200 g (P<0.05). With the increasing pH, the adsorption capacities of Cd2+ and Pb2+increased initially and then remain unchanged. Those of peanut straw and cotton husk are significantly higher than the other two materials (P<0.05). The sorption kinetics of Cd2+ and Pb2+ on the four materials follows the pseudo-second order model. Isothermal adsorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ by HG, KP, and MK fitted well with Langmuir equation, while Freundlich equation is more suitable for the MG. The maximum adsorption capacity of the four materials on Cd2+ and Pb2+ was 59.18-93.13 mg·g-1 and 106.43-167.73 mg·g-1, respecrtively. The existence of Na+ can significantly reduce the adsorption capacities on Cd2+ by the four materials and on Pb2+ by cotton straw (P<0.05).
Evaluation of Ecological Landscape of Road Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning: A Case Study of Huanghai National Forest Park
SUN Xin-yu, TIAN Jia-rong, XU Yan-nan, XU Sheng, LI Hai-dong
2020, 36(11):  1477-1484.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0032
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The construction of road ecological landscape is an important part of building an ecological garden city, and it is also an indispensable link in landscape planning of urban garden. In this study, the roads with broad-leaved trees and the roads with coniferous and broad-leaved mixed trees in Huanghai National Forest Park in Jiangsu Province were taken as the research objects, and the three-dimensional point clouds data was obtained by the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Considering the ecological and landscape benefits, a total of six main indicators were selected, including carbon sequestration, dust retention, humidification, plant aesthetic benefits, plant ornamental benefits and roadside landscape integration. Then, the weight values to each indicator were calculated through the mean square error method, and the road ecological landscape was comprehensively evaluated. The results show that: (1) The evaluation value for the roads with coniferous and broad-leaved mixed trees is 2.44, and for the roads with broad-leaved trees is 0.56, which indicates that for the Huanghai National Forest Park, the roads with coniferous and broad-leaved mixed trees have better ecological landscape benefit. (2) Compared with the traditional methods of manually collecting data on the sample plot, the utilization of TLS can acquire high-quality data and greatly reduce time and labor costs. This study can make a quantitative evaluation of the ecological protection function of street trees, and provide a scientific basis for urban landscape planning.
Extracting Large-scale Pig Farms in Plain River Network Area From GF-2 Image
CHEN Jun-song, SHI Fang, DU Wei, LI Wen-jing, FAN Jia-hui, TIAN Jia-rong, LIAO Xiao-wen, GUO Peng, YAO Shi-hao, LI Ming-shi, WANG Wen-lin
2020, 36(11):  1485-1494.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0764
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Accurate control and treatment of pig breeding industry pollution requires relevant departments to accurately and quickly grasp the spatial distribution information of large-scale pig farms, which can be realized by remote sensing technology. Taking the GF-2 image as data source, the large-scale pig farms located in Shizhuang Township and Jiangan Township, Rugao City, Jiangsu Province, in the plain river network area of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were taken as sample and verification objects, respectively. Based on the sample objects, the compositional elements of them were firstly defined as pigsties, fecal sewage pools and impounding reservoirs. Then, based on the chessboard segmentation, the building area index (BAI) was used to remove the interference of factories and other buildings in cluster on pigsty extraction and the multiresolution segmentation was then implemented. Afterwards, the spectral, geometric and textural features of the above-mentioned ground objects were selected to construct the extraction rule set of large-scale pig farms. Following the same extraction rule set in conjunction with GIS spatial overlay and distance analyses, the above-mentioned three kinds of components of the verification objects were extracted. Ultimately, the spatial consistency of the extracted results was verified by using field investigations. The results show that: (1) for the plain river network area, based on the chessboard segmentation with the segmentation object size of 516, BAI >-0.150 923 could be used to remove the interference of factories and other buildings in cluster on pigsty extraction; (2) after removing the interference, the proposed object-oriented extraction method could effectively extract the spatial distribution of large-scale pig farms, with an overall spatial consistency reaching to 82.24%. In conclusion, using very high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery and removing factories and other buildings in cluster, the method of object-oriented extraction is an effective strategy to extract large-scale pig farms in the plain river network area.
Optimization of Monitoring Indexes of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Rice Fields in the Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Based on Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis
HU Bing-tao, CHEN Yu-dong
2020, 36(11):  1495-1504.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0934
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Pollution from nutrients in rice production can affect water quality. To generate a nitrogen and phosphorus index for the surface water and leaching water from rice paddy fields in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, samples were collected in the modern agricultural park of the Qingpu District, Shanghai in 2018 over the whole period of paddy growth. Leaching water was sampled at depths of 30 and 60 cm. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to optimize the monitoring indexes and to establish the minimum data set (MDS) for the monitoring indicators of nitrogen and phosphorus in rice paddy fields in this region. The comprehensive scores of water quality index (WQI) of the MDS and the comprehensive scores of water quality index of the total data set (WQI-TDS) based on different analysis methods were compared. The results show that: (1) a minimum data set composed of 3-4 indicators could be selected from eight monitoring indexes of the surface water and leaching water at depths of 30 and 60 cm in paddy fields by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. (2) The comprehensive scores of water quality in paddy fields based on different data sets were significantly different. The range and mean value of comprehensive scores of water quality show that WQI-PCA was closer to WQI-TDS than WQI-CA, and the Nash effective coefficient and correlation of WQI-PCA and WQI-TDS were higher than WQI-CA. This indicates that MDS-PCA is more suitable than MDS-CA to replace WQI-TDS as the monitoring and evaluation index for rice paddy water pollution.