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Table of Content

Volume 36 Issue 12
25 December 2020
Analysis of the Disposal of Medical Waste Management at Home and Abroad and Suggestions on Countermeasures
ZHANG Sheng-tian, LI Mei, LI Qun, FAN Ting-ting, LIU Jing-liang, DENG Shao-po
2020, 36(12):  1505-1513.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0451
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The widespread outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 has aroused great concern of the government and the public on the environmental management and safe disposal of medical wastes. Developed countries have established a relatively comprehensive medical waste management system, while the China's medical waste management system and treatment methods still need to be improved. The current status of the production, management and disposal of medical wastes were analyzed systematically in this paper to summarize and analyze the problems of medical waste management and disposal in China. Learned from the foreign practices, effective methods such as strengthening the classified medical waste collection management system, the establishment of the producers responsible recycling system, the full implemention of the centralized processing system, the strengthening of the whole process of tracking management of each link, the deepening of the disposal technology research, and the building of the emergency disposal of medical wastes management system were put forward to provide references for further standardizing the development in this field.
Research Progress on Pollution Level and Removal for Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Rural Wastewater
LIU Deng-ping, LI Yan-cheng, LI Jiang, WU Pan, Lü Yang, ZHONG Xiong
2020, 36(12):  1514-1521.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0352
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Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), due to its abundant species, wide applications and complicated properties, are considered as a type of emerging persistent pollutants, which is harmful and can be detected in various environments. Because of large rural population in China, PPCPs in rural areas are also used increasingly and frequently with their economic growth and improved living standards. Hence, in this paper, the classification, property and effect of common PPCPs in rural wastewater was introduced. Analysis show that PPCPs in rural wastewater were mainly from livestock and poultry farming, and human-derived medicine, as well as daily cleaning and care products. Pollution levels of antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and some personal care products were summarized. PPCPs concentration difference in rural wastewater, as well as their removal and influencing factors in rural wastewater facilities (constructed wetland, lagoon, activated sludge), were also discussed in different regions at home and abroad. Moreover, the future study trend on PPCPs in rural wastewater was proposed in an attempt to provide a reference for the prevention and control of PPCPs pollution in rural wastewater.
Spatial-Temporal Heterogeneity of Coupling and Coordination Between Green Land Use and Economic Growth in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area
LIANG Yan-qing, GUAN Yang-yi, HUANG Zhi-ying, JIAO Xin-ying
2020, 36(12):  1522-1531.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.1060
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This paper discussed the spatial-temporal heterogeneity and its influencing factors of the coupling coordination of green land use and economic growth in 13 cities of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area. This work aims to provide decision-making references for the rational utilization of land resources and the transformation of economic growth mode. Super efficiency SBM model, standard deviation ellipse method, coupling coordination degree model and geographical detector method were conducted based on the section data of 2006, 2011 and 2016. Results show that: (1) From 2006 to 2016, the moving trends of green land use and economic growth systems in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area were northeast-southwest and northeast-north respectively, but the overall spatial distribution was northeast-southwest. (2) The coupling coordination degree ranged from 0.34 to 0.41, which changed from mild imbalance to close to imbalance, and the regions in northwest and south Hebei were always low; Beijing and Tianjin were lagging behind state in green land use, while cities in Hebei were lagging behind in economic growth. (3) The urbanization rate q value was up to 0.799 4 among detection of influence factors, and the interaction between the proportion of tertiary industry in GDP and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid waste was the largest, which was 0.955 6. The research concluded that there are significant differences between green land use and economic growth in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei in recent 10 years. The spatial coupling coordination level maintains the concentration and stability of inter annual distribution, but shows significant spatial-temporal heterogeneity. The urbanization rate is the dominant factor and the interaction effect of any two factors is better than the independent effect of single factor on the coordinated development of the two systems.
Particulate Pollution Characteristics of Typical Sand Dust Weather in Tianjin
LI Peng, XIAO Zhi-mei, TANG Miao, XU Hong, LI Li-wei, CHEN Kui, DENG Xiao-wen
2020, 36(12):  1532-1539.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0261
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In order to understand the characteristics of particulate pollution in recent sand dust weather in Tianjin, characterization of particulate matter pollution during four typical sand dust weather processes (nine dust days ) in 2018 were investigated based on high-resolution online monitoring data and backward track model. The results show that the hourly peak concentrations of TSP and PM10 were 2 265 and 928 μg·m-3, and the average concentrations were 970 and 435 μg·m-3, respectively. The mass ratios of PM10 to TSP were 0.45-0.83, and the mass ratios of PM2.5 to PM10 were 0.17-0.29. The number concentrations of particulate matter decreased rapidly, and the distribution trend of particulate spectrum show that the peak of particulate number concentrations decreased, and shifted to the direction of coarse particles. The peak size spectrum of the dust was among 0.67-1.72 μm. Chemical compositions concentrations of PM2.5 showed different change characteristics during sand dust weather processes. Concentrations of cations such as Ca2+, Na+ and Mg2+ increased significantly, while the concentrations of secondary ions (NO3-、SO42-、NH4+) decreased significantly. The extinction coefficients were smaller and the depolarization ratios were larger at altitude below 5 km of sand dust weather, and the depolarization ratios increased obviously with time and gradually transferred to the ground. As for four typical sand dust weather processes in 2018 in Tianjin, the sand dust mass was transported to Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region from an altitude of about 3 km with the northern path or the northwest path influence of Tianjin, and its main sources located at central, south and southeast part of Mongolia.
The Characteristics of the Composition of Various Phosphorus Forms in Lake Surface Sediments in Wuhan City
NIE Li-juan, TIAN Wen-long, GUAN Xi-dong
2020, 36(12):  1540-1548.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0253
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In order to reveal the characteristics of phosphorus composition within lake sediments in Wuhan City, forty surface sediment samples were collected from five types of lakes with water quality of grades Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ and inferior Ⅴ. Concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), organic phosphorus (Org-P), inorganic phosphorus (IP), Fe/Al-bound phosphorus (Fe/Al-P), and Ca-bound phosphorus (Ca-P) in these samples were analyzed using the standard measurement and test procedure (SMT). The ranges of phosphorus concentrations were 444.0-2 055.5 mg·kg-1 for TP, 146.8-400.5 mg·kg-1 for Org-P, 237.5-1 889.3 mg·kg-1 for IP, 96.1-1 152.8 mg·kg-1 for Fe/Al-P and 108.4-812.7 mg·kg-1 for Ca-P, respectively. The results indicate that TP was dominated by IP, followed by Fe/Al-P, Ca-P, and Org-P. Among the five different types of lakes, contents of TP and various species of phosphorus (except Org-P) generally increased with the deterioration of water quality. In 26 samples, readily-released bioavailable phosphorus accounted for more than 50% of TP, indicating that these lakes would be faced with high risk of eutrophication, even under a scenario of decreased external phosphorus inputs. According to the local indicators of spatial association cluster map of various phosphorus species in Wuhan City, TP, IP and Fe/Al-P have high-high type of spatial agglomeration in four lakes of the industrial zone, while random distribution is observed in Ca-P and Org-P.
Evaluation Effects of Organic Vegetable Planting on Soil Quality in Songhuaba Basin
WU Yun-cheng, LIU Ming-qing, YANG Tao-ming, LIU Yu, XI Yun-guan
2020, 36(12):  1549-1555.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0405
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In this study, two typical organic vegetable production bases in Songhuaba watershed of Kunming city were selected for the evaluation of the effects of organic vegetable production on soil quality. Organic base I includes three treatments YJ1-1、YJ1-2 and YJ1-3, which had been engaged in organic planting for 1 year, 3 years and 6 years, respectively. Organic base Ⅱ includes one treatment of YJ2, which had been engaged in organic planting for 10 years. And one nearby conventional vegetable production base was also engaged in the study as CF treatment. The results show that the comprehensive fertility index of YJ1-2 and YJ1-3 treatments were higher than 0.8, and both belonged to the excellent level. The total active organic matter content of YJ1-2 and YJ1-3 treatments were 1.30 and 1.48 g·kg-1, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the CF treatment. The carbon pool management index of YJ1-2 treatment increased by 38.0% compared with CF treatment, however, the differences of the index between other treatments were not significant. Organic planting significantly increased the soil microbial activity of YJ1-2, YJ1-3 and YJ2 treatments, while significantly inhibited the bioavailability of heavy metals (Cu、Cd and Ni). The soil properties of YJ1-1 treatment was not different from that of CF treatment, indicating that the engaging time of organic planting and the amount of input of organic materials were important factors affecting soil properties. Therefore, organic planting can be used as an effective way to improve the farmland soil quality and reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals.
Evaluation of Rectification Effect of “Waste Clearance Action 2018” on Environmental Problems
XU Yuan-shun, ZHAO Ze-hua, ZHANG Hou-hu, JIAO Shao-jun, SHAO Xiang
2020, 36(12):  1556-1561.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0260
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In May 2018, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment organized an action on fighting against environmental violations related to solid wastes, which is known as "Waste Clearance Action 2018", to ensure the ecological safety of the Yangtze River and curb the severe trends of solid waste illegal transfer and dumping. Based on the data collected duriing the implementation of "Waste Clearance Action 2018" from 11 provinces (province-level cities) in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and using analytic hierarchy processes and linear weighted sum model, the effect of the actions on the rectification of environmental problems related to solid waste was evaluated. Four indicators of "clearing, tracing, punishing and blaming" were selected to build an assessment index system. Evaluation results show that the target of "Waste Clearance Action 2018" on rectification of environmental violations was highly fulfilled, with an overal rectification index of 0.85. Regionally, rectification levels of Anhui and Chongqing were the highest, with an index of 0.92 and 0.90, respectively, followed by Zhejiang, Shanghai and Jiangsu. According to the different categories of solid waste,environmental problems related to hazardous waste were most deeply remedied, with an index of 0.91, followed by general industry solid waste, mixed solid waste and other problems.
Building an Evaluation Indicator System for Assessing the Protection Effectiveness of Ecological Conservation Redline
XU De-lin, ZOU Chang-xin, LIN Nai-feng, WANG Yan, XU Meng-jia, WU Dan, CAO Bing-shuai
2020, 36(12):  1562-1568.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0493
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Ecological conservation redline (ECR) is the bottom line and lifeline for safeguarding and maintaining national ecological security. It has strategic importance and should be strictly protected. Scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of ECR is important for ensuring the effect of its policy implementation and clarifying the impact of the ECR on the costs and benefits of multi-scale stakeholders. In this study, around the protection target of ECR-"Its ecological function should not be decreased, its area should not be reduced, its nature should not be changed and its management ability should not be weakened", the basic ideas and the evaluation index system of ECR protection effectiveness assessment were proposed. Focusing on the ecosystem status and management ability, and based on multi-data collected a comprehensive evaluation system was used to analyze the changes in index values before and after the implementation of an ECR. The effects of promoting an ECR to regional ecological status and security can then be recorded quantitatively. The results of assessing ECR protection effectiveness can provide technical support for optimizing its framework, and also assist in arranging ecological protection compensation funds, investigating responsibility for ecological environment damage, and carrying out ecological restoration projects within an ECR.
Identification and Analysis of Ecological Nodes Based on Linkage Mapper and Granularity Inverse Method in the Middle and Northern Sections of Taihang Mountain: A Case Study of Fuping County, Hebei Province
ZHANG Mei-li, QI Yue-pu, ZHANG Li, CHEN Ying, ZHOU Ya-peng, CHEN Ya-heng, WANG Shu-tao
2020, 36(12):  1569-1578.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0417
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The identification and maintenance of ecological nodes can connect broken habitat patches and improve the connectivity between landscapes. Fuping County, an ecologically poor area in the north-central section of the Taihang Mountains, was selected as the study area. In this paper, ecological nodes are divided into ecological weak points, ecological obstacle points, and ecological pinch points. The MSPA (morphological spatial pattern analysis) model was used to identify the ecological source, the MCR model was used to construct the minimum cumulative resistance surface, and the various types of ecological nodes were identified based on the Linkage Mapper analysis. When calculating the scale, shape, and composition of various types of ecological nodes, the granularity inverse method, the hydrological analysis module and the spatial network analysis module in ArcGIS were used. The results show the total ecological source of the study area is 25 863.97 hm2; There are a total of 120 ecological nodes, including 75 ecological weak points, 25 ecological obstacle points and 20 ecological pinch points; Since 400 m grain size is a suitable reference for the construction of ecological nodes, there are 118 ecological node areas with a total area of 2 043.80 hm2. By clarifying the construction forms of various types of ecological nodes, a total of 71 areas could be constructed as forest ecological nodes, 43 areas could be constructed as water ecological nodes, and 4 areas could be constructed as garden ecological nodes. This research provides a specific plan for the construction of local ecological nodes, and a reference for the promotion of ecological network connectivity.
Aquatic Biological Integrity and Spatio-Temporal Variations of Rivers in Dezhou City, Shandong
WANG Xu, WANG Yong-gang, WU Da-yong
2020, 36(12):  1579-1587.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0397
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Evaluating river health conditions based on biological assessment is one of the methods commonly used in river protection and management. Through investigation and study on the community structure and diversity of algae, benthic animals, fish and aquatic plants in the main rivers of Dezhou City, an evaluation index system for aquatic biological integrity was established. Temporal and spatial differences in the aquatic biological integrity of rivers in each basin in Dezhou City were explored. The results show that the aquatic biological integrity in rivers (reach sections) of Dezhou City was generally moderate. The Dehuixin River was the best (63.56, Good). The status of Tuhai River (58.18) and Zhangweixin River (51.30) were general, and the status of Majia River was the worst with the aquatic biological integrity of only 47.39. On a spatial scale, the aquatic life of rivers flowing through urban areas was inferior to that of other rivers (reach sections); the status of the upper reaches of the four river basins was better than that of the lower reaches. On the time scale, the aquatic biological integrity of the river during the wet season (August) was better than that during the dry season (November). Based on the assessment of aquatic biological integrity of rivers in Dezhou City, this study can provide methods for the development of aquatic biodiversity protection and ecological restoration measures in the region.
Dynamic Study on Soil Organic Carbon Reservoir in Inner Mongolia Grassland Under Grassland Ecological Management
LUO Wen-rong, HU Guo-zheng, GAO Qing-zhu
2020, 36(12):  1588-1597.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0170
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In order to explore the dynamic changes of soil organic carbon pool under the grassland ecological management and evaluate the effect of grassland ecological construction and grassland carbon cycle scientifically, Inner Mongolia grassland was taken as the research area, based on IPCC Tier 2. Carbon budget list method. The dynamic change of grassland area in Inner Mongolia from 2001 to 2015 was analyzed, and the surface soil organic carbon reserves of different types of grassland (temperate meadow grassland, temperate typical grassland and temperate desert grassland) in Inner Mongolia under the implementation of different management measures (grazing prohibition, rest grazing, rotation grazing, fencing, improvement, grass planting) was estimated. The results show that: (1) From 2001 to 2015, the dynamic changes of grassland area in Inner Mongolia were not consistent. The overall active area increased significantly with time (P<0.01). (2) Soil carbon sequestration rate changed under different grassland management measures. Soil carbon sequestration rate showed a significant increase under grazing prohibition and grazing cessation (P<0.05) and grassland management measures promoted soil carbon sequestration. (3) From 2001 to 2015, Inner Mongolia grassland showed a carbon sink on the whole. Meta-analysis was used to determine the range of soil organic carbon under different grassland management measures. The average change rate of soil organic carbon was (473.70±53.93)×104 t·a-1. Soil carbon sequestration rates of different grassland types increased and the annual variation of typical grassland was the largest, with an average of (174.22±74.70)×104 t·a-1. Inner Mongolia grassland ecosystem has great carbon sink potential and will play a greater role in global carbon balance in the future. Grassland ecological management has effectively improved soil organic carbon sink rate, which is not only conducive to the ecological protection of northern grasslands, but also provides a guarantee for China's ecological, economic and social benefits.
Study on the Pollution Characteristics of Typical Textile Dyeing Sludge (TDS) in China
ZHAO Ze-hua, WANG Yi, HUA Jing, ZHANG Da-peng, ZHANG Hou-hu, JIAO Shao-jun
2020, 36(12):  1598-1604.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2019.0912
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With the development of textile printing and dyeing industry in China, dyeing sludge has caused increasingly serious environmental problems due to its multiple characteristics of large output, high pollutant content, complex composition, etc. 14 dyeing enterprises and 4 dyeing wastewater treatment plants were selected as research objects in the country. And then, product types, main dyes, wastewater treatment technology and others were investigated. Referring to the identification methods of hazardous waste, pollution and distribution characteristics of organic pollutants were analyzed deeply in dyeing sludge, as well as the heavy metals. The results show that organic pollutants such as aniline, phenol and petroleum solvents were detected in dyeing sludge; the detection rates of heavy metals such as Zn, Ba, As, Cr and Ni were also high; and the content of Sb was generally higher than that of other types of enterprises in polyester printing dyeing sludge. Besides, the use of irregular water treatment agents did have a significant impact on the content of heavy metals in dyeing sludge.
Effect of Biochar on Soil Physical Characteristics Improvement in Land Consolidation Region
DENG Jian-qiang, FANG Wu-jun, WANG Yong, WU Dong, FAN Jun
2020, 36(12):  1605-1611.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0320
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In order to improve soil physical conditions of land consolidation region, a field experiment was designed to study the effect of biochar addition on soil physical characteristics. The biochar addition treatments (0, 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 t·hm-2) were set to study the influence of biochar on soil bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, water-stable aggregates, soil water holding capacity and other indicators. The results show that (1) The soil bulk density decreased by 1.67%-8.19% with biochar treatments and when the biochar application rate was >30 t·hm-2, the soil bulk density was significantly decreased. (2) When compared with CK, >0.25-0.5 mm macro soil aggregates was increased by biochar application treatments, while the >5 mm macro soil aggregates and MWD decreased. (3) The application of biochar increased the water retention capacity by adjusting the soil water release capacity, but higher application of biochar could only slightly increase soil wilting water content. Therefore, it was suggested that the best application rate of biochar to be about 15 t·hm-2 in land consolidation region, which could improve soil water stable macro-aggregates (>0.25-0.5 mm) and soil water release capacity.
Effect of Orchard Sprayers on Dermal Exposure of Operators
WANG Shi-lin, FAN Dao-quan, LI Xue, ZHOU Hao, ZHANG Mei-na, YAN Ting-ting, Lü Xiao-lan
2020, 36(12):  1612-1618.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0159
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China is the largest orchard planting country in the world, and it's fruit industry plays an important role in increasing farmers' income and in rural construction. However, large amount of pesticides has to be used many times during orchard planting to ensure fruit yield and quality. At the same time, pesticides invading into the body of the operators through respiratory and skin will cause serious health risk. In order to understand the dermal exposure of operators during pesticide application in orchard, strengthen occupational health protection and reduce the exposure risk of operators, three kinds of most widely-used orchard sprayers trailer sprayer, mounted sprayer and spray gun were used to evaluate the dermal exposure of operators in peach orchard. Fluorescer BSF with a fraction of 0.1% in mass was added into spraying liqud as tracer for quantification, and LS55 fluorometer was used to measure the fluorescence value of different parts of operators' body. The results show that the most exposed part of operators of trailer sprayer and mounted sprayer were head and back, and there were no significant difference between left and right sides of operators' body. The most exposed parts of operators of spray gun were head, chest and back, and the exposure amount on left side (near nozzle) of operators was significantly higher than that on the other side. Among the three orchard sprayers, the trailer sprayer had the lowest dermal exposure on operators, and its total dermal exposure in 100 m operating distance and 100 L spraying volume were 0.315 and 0.292 mL, respectively. For mounted sprayer, the maximum total dermal exposure amount reached to 5.311 mL in 100 L spraying volume, and for spray gun the maximum total dermal exposure amount reached to 74.042 mL in 100 m operating distance. The study illustrates that the operators had lower protection awareness and higher dermal exposure risk during pesticide application. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the protection awareness of the operators, meanwhile the orchard should be planned rationally and the mechanization level of orchard sprayer should be improved.
The Effects of Hedysarum scoparium Restoration on Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil in Hillside Shifting Sandy Land in Middle Reaches of Yarlung Zangbo River, China
WANG Tao, SI Wan-tong, YAN Rui-qiang, LI Hai-dong, LIN Nai-feng, SHEN Wei-shou
2020, 36(12):  1619-1625.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0371
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To better understand the influence of artificial sand fixation vegetation on soil physical and chemical properties in the flowing sandy land of hill side, The soil nutrients and mechanical composition at the sand fixation vegetation restoration area (experimental group) and the bare land (control group) in the Shannan broad valley section were measured. The valley is located at the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River. The improvement effect of Hedysarum scoparium on the soil nutrients and mechanical composition was then analyzed. The results show that the pH and total potassium content of the Hedysarum scoparium rhizome soil decreased significantly, while the total nitrogen and organic matter content increased observably when compared with the control group soil at the same altitude. The ranking of quality of soil nutrients is total potassium > total nitrogen > organic matter > total phosphorus. The soil particle in the sample plot is mainly fine sand and medium sand, and the content of fine sand in the Hedysarum scoparium rhizome soil of flower stick (53.79%) is higher than that in the control group (49.34%), which indicates that the artificial flower stick can make the soil particle size continuously to be finer, and has an increasing effect on the nutrient content of the surface soil of vegetation. In the mechanical composition of soil, there was no correlation between coarse sand, extremely coarse sand, gravel and soil nutrients, however there was a high correlation between clay and very fine sand and soil nutrient content. The above findings show that the smaller the soil particles were, the greater the impact on the soil can be, which means the greater contribution to the soil nutrients. In conclusion, as a plant with developed root system, Hedysarum scoparium is helpful to improve the texture of the flowing sandy soil in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River, and can be chosen as a high quality artificial restoration plant in the flowing sandy land.
Spatial Distribution and Sources Assessment of Heavy Metals in Vineyard Soil of Turpan Basin
WANG Wei-wei
2020, 36(12):  1626-1631.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0301
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In order to understand the distribution and sources of heavy metals in vineyard soil in Turpan Basin, Xinjiang, a total of 101 soil samples were collected from vineyards, and analyzed for the concentrations of six heavy metal elements, i.e. As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Hg. The spatial distribution of heavy metals in vineyard soils was analyzed based on the GIS technology, while the main sources were analyzed using correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Obtained results indicate that the average concentrations of the six elements in vineyard soil in Turpan Basin were lower than the limits of the National Soil Environmental Quality Standards (GB 15618-2018), but the average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, and Hg were 1.05, 1.58, 1.49, and 1.15 times as the background values of irrigated soil in Xinjiang, respectively. The spatial distribution patterns of the six elements of vineyard soil in Turpan were substantially heterogeneous. In the case of As, the high concentrations were observed mainly in the eastern areas, whereas Cd was most concentrated in the southwestern area and Cr was most concentrated in the central areas. A dot-distributed pattern was discerned for Ni, whereas Pb and Hg were most concentrated in the areas with relatively dense population and traffic in the study area. As, Cr, and Ni elements in vineyard soil are mainly from natural sources, whereas Cd, Pb, and Hg elements are mainly from anthropogenic sources.
Feasibility and Potential Problems of Earthworm Cultivation From Decomposed Chicken Manure
RAN Xue-wen, LI Ning, XIONG Xiao-li
2020, 36(12):  1632-1638.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0102
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By mixing chicken manure (CM) and sawdust as earthworms feeding materials after fermentation, and the initial carbon-nitrogen ration (C/N) was adjusted to 20, 25 and 30 by controlling the amount of sawdust. The survival rate and weight growth rate of earthworms were taken as indicators to verify the feasibility of feeding earthworms with fermented CM. By feeding earthworms with for 21 days the potential problems in large-scale breeding process was then analyzed., The results show that the survival rate and weight growth rate of the experimental group with initial C/N of 30 were the highest, reaching 99.66% and 38.04%, respectively. And the content of Arsenic (As) in earthworms and wormcast exhibited higher level, reaching 49.87 and 175.40 mg·kg-1, respectively. The toxicity of the three antibiotics (florfenicol, sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline hydrochloride) to earthworms was low and had no influence on the cocoon production of earthworms. The research results can provide theoretical guidance for the practical application of earthworm cultivation with decomposed chicken manure (CM).