Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Avian Diversity in Hupingshan National Nature Reserve
- JIANG Bo-wen, HE Chun-rong, LIAO Qing-yi, KANG Zu-jie, WEN Zhe, TIAN Shu-rong
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Biodiversity is multidimensional and scale-affected, therefore necessitating the analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of birds. To analyze the composition and dynamic of birds in Hupingshan National Nature Reserve and, thus, to fully understand the spatial and temporal patterns of avian distribution, avian diversity in different areas within the Reserve from 2016 to 2017 was assessed. A total of 110 avian species were recorded during the study period, accounting for 25.11% of the total avian species in Hunan Province. To analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of birds in the Reserve, both the alpha diversity index of each monitoring station and beta diversity index of the entire reserve were calculated by month. The variations between different stations, months, seasons, and years were then analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Next, the Bray-Curtis index of species composition of each altitude section was calculated by season to compare the dissimilarity. Results show that there were significant differences in bird diversity among different monitoring stations (F7,88=7.549, P=0.000 9) and altitudes (F4,91=24.849, P<0.000 1). In addition, the species compositions were significantly different seasonally among different monitoring stations (F3,92=4.189 2, P=0.008 2). In particular, the avian diversity had a significantly high level in the highest-altitude section. The alpha diversity was highest in spring and lowest in winter, owing to more larva being available for birds to eat in spring, and fewer food resources in winter. The beta diversity shows that there are significant seasonal differences in the entire reserve (F3,20=4.186 7, P=0.019 6). The Bray-Curtis index showed that the composition of birds has no significant correlation between seasons (F3,36=1.064 5, P=0.376 2), indicating that, irrespective of season, each altitude section has its own relatively stable species structure. Biodiversity monitoring is a basic work for protecting biodiversity. The results of this study show that there are certain spatial and temporal differences in bird composition, but the composition of birds in each season and altitude is relatively stable. It reflects the relative independence of bird diversity difference with space and time. This research can provide a basis for the monitoring and protection of biodiversity, which is of great significance in protecting and maintaining the overall ecosystem.