Table of Content

Volume 37 Issue 9
25 September 2021
Status and Strategy of Aquatic Genetic Resource Protection in China
LIU Yong-xin, SHAO Chang-wei, ZAHNG Dian-chang, ZHENG Xian-hu, HOU Ji-lun
2021, 37(9):  1089-1097.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0094
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The total output of aquatic product in China has been ranked in the first position of the world for consecutive 30 years, meeting 30% of the nation demand for animal protein. Aquatic genetic resources are not only an important material basis for the effective supply of high-quality aquatic protein, but also an effective way to ensure national food security and ecological security. The aquatic genetic resources are directly related with species and genetic diversity, and their main forms are the living, specimen, tissue, cell and gene resources. At present, the serious decline of biodiversity, the lack of large-scale accurate identification of species, and the imperfect protection facilities of germplasm resources have become the bottlenecks restricting the efficient development of aquatic genetic resources. Here, the general overview of aquatic genetic resources in China is systematically summarized, the main existing problems are analyzed, and the general ideas and overall objectives of genetic resources are condensed. On the above basis, the developmental strategies and research topics are proposed for strengthening the protection of aquatic genetic resources, thus, to lay a solid foundation for realizing the goal of strengthening the country with rich aquatic germplasm resources.
Rules, Challenges and Countermeasures of Sharing of Pathogens in the Context of the Implementation of the Nagoya Protocol
ZHANG Xiao-yong
2021, 37(9):  1098-1103.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0153
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Timely sharing of pathogens is critical for pathogens early identification, risk assessment, evidence-based interventions initiation, and subsequent development of diagnostic tools, vaccines and medicines. The negotiating history of the Nagoya Protocol indicates that the pathogens falls within the scope of the Nagoya Protocol. The preamble of the Nagoya Protocol explicitly refers to pathogens, and not only that, but its general rules on access and benefit-sharing as well as special considerations also apply to pathogens. The issue of pathogen sharing faces different aspects of challenges as the Nagoya Protocol requires states' compliance. Since the Nagoya Protocol takes the bilateral approach to the access and benefit-sharing, the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol has resulted in the delay or limit of sharing of certain pathogens, such as for seasonal influenza virus. The relationship between the Nagoya Protocol and the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework for the Sharing of Influenza Viruses and Access to Vaccines and other Benefits has not yet been clearly defined, thereby producing legal uncertainty surrounding the sharing of influenza viruses with human pandemic potential. The tendency that the use of digital sequence information presumably substitutes the physical materials has emerged as a result of technology developments, but the Nagoya Protocol leaves a major gap in regulating the use of digital sequence information, especially for the sharing of benefits arising from the use of digital sequence information. The Contracting Parties should introduce special measures, procedures and arrangements at the domestic level, such as fast-track procedure for access to pathogens. At the same time, the Contracting Parties should put forward effective countermeasures based on collective consultative decision-making in order to respond to the challenges. In the future, the sharing of pathogen will play stronger role in the public health preparedness and response through the efforts made by the Contracting Parties.
On the Optimization Path for Legal Mechanism for Benefit-sharing to Biological Genetic Resources
MU Tong, YU Wen-xuan
2021, 37(9):  1104-1108.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0423
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The fair and just benefit-sharing of biological genetic resources is of strategic significance for biosecurity. There are some deficiencies in the benefit-sharing mechanism for biological genetic resources in China, which are mainly reflected in the following three aspects:the functioning of benefit-sharing, the scope of regulation and the mode of regulation. It is necessary to adopt appropriate legal theory, establish the principle of whole-process supervision, adjust the regulation scope of benefit-sharing mechanism, properly classify the information of benefit-sharing and strengthen the supervision to benefit-sharing agreement, so as to balance the conservation and the rational utilization of biological genetic resources, reconcile the interest conflicting in the benefit-sharing process. Only with these measures could it be possible to achieve rational and efficient use of biological genetic resources.
The Development Status and the China's Choice on the Issue of Digital Sequence Information of Genetic Resources
LIU Qing
2021, 37(9):  1109-1114.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0326
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The digital sequence information of genetic resources is the product of the swift advent of synthetic biology and the rapid development of DNA mutation. The legal issues entailed by digital sequence information have sparked heated debates across international organizations and countries. The widespread and universal use of digital sequence information positively affects biodiversity protection. However, it also brings challenges to the access and benefit sharing of genetic resources. The controversy over the definition of the terminology, scope of content and the proper usage of digital sequence information reflects the disparities between developed and developing countries in identifying legal attributes and benefit sharing of digital sequence information. China should actively participate in multilateral negotiations and bilateral consultations on digital sequence information. It is necessary to put digital sequence information under the framework of the "Nagoya Protocol" and interpret it as "genetic resources" and interpret the sequencing and storage of digital sequence information as the "utilization of genetic resources". The "Regulations on the Administration of the Access and Benefit Sharing of Biological Genetic Resources (Draft)" should not overemphasize the physical materials and tangibility of the use of biological genetic resources. They should, however, focus on the protection of information or data regarding genetic resources and integrate and build a database of digital sequence information.
Study on the Plant Species Diversity and Management of the Sacred Nature Sites in the Mountain Area of Southwestern Zhejiang, China
LI Ying-shuo, SUN Ming-hao, ZHAO Fu-wei
2021, 37(9):  1115-1121.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0255
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Sacred nature sites (SNS) play a significant role in biodiversity and cultural diversity conservation. Taking the methodologies of key informant interview, species important value, Simpson index and Shannon-Wiener index, plant community and its species diversity of four categories of SNS which locate in eight villages around and/or in the Qianjiangyuan & Baishanzu National Park at southwestern Zhejiang, namely, geomancy forest, village-entrances forest, ancient-tomb forest and ancient-road forest, were investigated. It indicates that gymnosperm possesses an obvious superiority in the tree layer of all SNS categories, but the dominant family and its species diversity are diverse in different categories of the SNS. Some endemic, rare and endangered flora and fauna as well as edible, aesthetical, scientific, ecological and economic plants are protected in the SNS due to the maintenance of cultural belief and customary governance by local people. However, the protection of the SNS is facing some challenges for the reason of population outflow and gradual fadeaway of cultural belief. It is urgently necessary to update the governance mechanism of SNS in order to integrate important but endangered SNS into modern governance.
Opportunities, Challenges and Policy Analysis of Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (OECMs) for Biodiversity Conservation
WANG Lei, LU Xiao-qiang, LIU Li, MA Yue, HU Fei-long, LIU Yan
2021, 37(9):  1122-1128.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0152
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Biodiversity is the material basis for human survival and development, and it provides rich and diverse food, energy, medicine, and genetic resources for humankind. However, affected by anthropogenic activities, biodiversity loss has become one of the most significant risks and threats facing human health and well-being. From the "Aichi Biodiversity Targets" to the "Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework" (hereinafter referred to as the "Post-2020 GBF"), the proportion of protected areas has always been one of the most important and remarkable targets under the Convention on Biological Diversity. Other area-based protection measures (OECMs) is an emerging international important issue, which has become an indispensable supplement to protected areas, and has important practical significance for promoting in-situ conservation and the diversification of conservation methods. Through collecting materials referring to the original proposal, concept formation, development history, and research progress of OECMs worldwide, the differences and connections between OECMs and protected areas have been analyzed in-depth, and the challenges that OECMs face in the fields of scientific basis, multilateral consultations, and capital investment have been revealed. On this basis, from clearly identifying the necessity of OECMs, deeply participating in the formation of OECMs rules and standards, balancing the scientificity and the effectiveness of OECMs, strengthening department planning and management, suggestions on the implementation of OECMs are put forward in order to scientifically identify the measures in line with China's national conditions, further support the achievement of the Post-2020 GBF, and also provide important support for the realization of protected areas related targets.
Requirements for Reduction of Pesticides and Fertilizers under the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Countermeasure Suggestions for China
LIU Xin, WANG Lei, HU Fei-long, MA Yue, YU Ci-gang, LU Xiao-qiang, LIU Li, ZHENG Su-ping
2021, 37(9):  1129-1136.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0144
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The long-term and inappropriate utilization of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has caused a series of chain reactions such as environmental pollution, which has attracted the attention of more and more parties, non-governmental organizations and experts. As one of the important parts of the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity (hereinafter referred to as the Convention), addressing the issue of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has implications for related issues in the Convention such as environmental pollution, agricultural biodiversity, sustainable supply chains, incentive measures and mainstreaming. This study systematically collected and compared the data of the current status of the utilization of chemical fertilizers and pesticides domestically and abroad, sorted out the progress and evolution of the goals and targets related to the Convention, and deeply analyzed the severe situation and existing problems in this field. On this basis, the following four suggestions are put forward:(1) An ecological agricultural production system should be established to achieve the three objectives of the Convention with balance, and improve the efficiency of utilization of the fertilizer and pesticide; (2) The supervision system for the sustainable supply chain should be improved to reduce pollution and biodiversity loss in the supply chain process; (3) It is necessary to clarify that China reached zero growth of pesticides and fertilizers utilization in 2020, and there is no more subsidy policies that are negtive to the conservation of biodiversity in this field; (4) Policies on control of chemical fertilizers and pesticides should be included in national agricultural policies, and be combined with other sectoral strategies such as green development and circular economy. As the host country and chair-designate of the Fifteenth Conference of the Parties (COP15) of the Convention, China will take the COP15 as an opportunity to achieve synergy and effective solutions to significant issues such as pollution, mainstreaming, harmful subsidies, sustainable supply chain, so as to lay a foundation for the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework and provide valuable support for sustainable transformation of China's agriculture.
Research Progress on Promoting the Chemical Oxidation Degradation of Pollutants by Organics
YANG Hao, YANG Lu, ZHU Xin, HUANG Jian-bo, GUO Yang, SHENG Feng, LONG Tao, SHI Jia-qi
2021, 37(9):  1137-1146.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0798
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The improvement of pollutant oxidation degradation efficiency by adding natural organic catalysts has attached widespread attention in recent years. Studies have shown that organic compounds can accelerate the process of classical oxidation reactions by promoting the reduction of transition metals or complexing transition metals, and can also activate oxidants directly to generate oxidative free radicals. Based on the promotion of typical organic functional groups on the chemical oxidative process, metal-organic framework has been developed and applied widely. This manuscript reviews common types of organic-promoted oxidation reactions and their mechanisms, so as to improve the chemical oxidation technology and put forward some plausible advice.
Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Urban Build-up Area in the Core Area of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Based on Nighttime Lighting Data During 1998-2017
LU Yong-quan, XIAN Yu-yang, LIU Gui-lin
2021, 37(9):  1147-1157.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0429
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With the progress of urbanization, urban expansion has exacerbated the contradiction between human beings and natural ecosystems. Thus, optimizing the urban spatial pattern has become an important measure for the sustainable urban development. Based on DMSP-OLS and NPP-VIIRS nighttime lighting data, the urban built-up areas of the core area of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) from 1998 to 2017 were extracted. Then the GIS spatial analysis methods and a series of urban expansion indicators were employed to reveal the spatial and temporal changes of built-up areas of the core area of GBA and their driving mechanisms were quantitatively analyzed. The results show that urban built-up areas in the core area of GBA generally showed an upward trend while the rate of expansion showed a significant downward trend. Overall, the closeness of the urban built-up area in the core area of GBA decreased with time and the fractal dimension basically remained unchanged despite the fluctuations. During 1998-2017, the expansion of the urban built-up area in the core area of GBA spatially showed a "northwest-southeast" direction. Meanwhile, the center gradually moved towards the northwest. In addition, the urban expansion pattern presented a diffusion-condensation-diffusion oscillation. Physical factors and socio-economic factors had obvious correlation with the expansion of urban built-up areas while their influences varied within different periods.
Remote Sensing-based Comparative Study on the Urban Ecological Quality between Chinese and Foreign Megacities
WANG Mei-ya, XU Han-qiu
2021, 37(9):  1158-1167.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.1015
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Megacities are likely to have more significant impacts on regional ecological quality than smaller cities and country areas. Owing to the complex, potentially nonlinear relationship between urban ecological systems and biophysical surface components in megacities, selecting the right quantitative models to evaluate their urban ecological quality is not always clear. Six typical megacities inside and outside China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, London, New York, and Tokyo) were taken as examples. 7 ecological indicators, including Air Quality Index (AQI), Road Density (RD), Ecological Connectivity Index (ECI), Wetness, Greenness, Dryness, and Heat, were integrated to a new model named as urban remote sensing ecological index (URSEI) using principal component analysis. The URSEI was used to quantitatively evaluate the ecological quality of Chinese and foreign megacities. Results show that London had the best ecological quality (0.542), followed by Guangzhou (0.533), Beijing (0.517), New York (0.511) and Shanghai (0.495). Tokyo had the lowest ecological quality (0.445). Comparing the 7 indices within the URSEI, the ECI, Wetness and Greenness indices had positive effects on the ecology, while the AQI, RD, Dryness and Heat indices had negative effects. London and Guangzhou had high ECI and Greenness values and low AQI, RD, Dryness and Heat values. Hence, they had better ecological quality than those of the other four megacities. According to the spatial distribution of the URSEI, urban centers that were covered by high ratio of impervious surfaces and low ratio of vegetation had low ecological connectivity between the ecological land patches and had severe heat island effects and air pollution, which resulted in poor ecological quality. Areas covered by large amounts of vegetation had high Greenness and ECI values, and low Dryness, Heat and AQI values, which helped to improve the ecological quality. The URSEI can be used both as a quantitative indicator to describe the regional ecological quality, and to describe the spatial difference in the ecological quality of megacities.
Study on the Spatio-temporal Changes of Oasis Land Use and Ecosystem Service Value in Jinghe River Basin
WU Zhao-peng, ZHANG Jin-yan, WANG Juan-juan, Lü Si-yu, LI Bin-cai
2021, 37(9):  1168-1175.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0958
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Land use change can directly affect ecosystem service function and ecological security. The quantitative evaluation of the eco-environmental effects of land use change at the county level can provide a scientific basis for the rational development and utilization of water and soil resources in the oasis of Jinghe River Basin. Three phases of images in 1990 (encouraging land reclamation), 2000 (implementing ecological protection) and 2018 (after implementing ecological protection) were used to calculate the land use types and introduce the method of echelon ring to analyze the ecosystem services value. Furthermore, the eco-environmental effects of land use change were identified by using the eco-environmental quality index and the ecological contribution rate. Results show that:(1) From 1990 to 2018, the land use in the study area changed significantly. The total area of construction land, cultivated land, water area and grassland increased while the total area of woodland and unused land decreased; (2) In the past 28 years, the ecosystem services value in the study area has changed greatly. The trend was to be decreased first and then increased. The overall ecosystem services value in 2018 is better than that in 1990 and 2000. Based on constructing a gradient loop which took the city as the center, the spatial characteristics of ecosystem service value were analyzed. Results indicate that the ecosystem services value of the southern parts of the study area was higher than the northern parts, and the high value appeared in S5-S7 echelon ring in 1990 and 2000. While in 2018 the ecosystem services value of the northern parts of the study area was higher than the southern parts, and the high value appeared in N6-N8 echelon ring (48-64 km); (3) The eco-environmental quality index of 1990, 2000 and 2018 were 0.147, 0.120 and 0.194, respectively. The main reasons for eco-environmental degradation were land desertification and the transformation of forest and grassland into unused land, and the main causes for the improvement of eco-environment quality were the transformation of land use from unused land into forest and grassland and the restoration of Ebinur Lake.
Diversity of Wintering Waterbirds in Tiaozini Wetland of Dongtai and Rudong Wetland, Jiangsu Province
GAO Shuai, LIU Wei, ZHANG Shuai, YI Jian-feng, WANG Zheng
2021, 37(9):  1176-1182.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0862
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The Tiaozini wetland in Dongtai and Rudong wetland are important nodes on the East Asian-Australasian Flyway which serve as important stopovers and wintering sites for waterbirds. In the winters of 2017-2020, the diversity and habitat utilization of wintering waterbirds in the Tiaozini and Rudong wetlands were surveyed by a sampling method. A total of 52 species of waterbirds were found in the two wetlands, belonging to 8 orders and 13 families. Specifically, 42 waterbird species from 8 orders and 12 families were recorded in the Tiaozini wetland, and the wintering population of five species in a single survey exceeded 1% of their global populations. In addition, 43 waterbird species from 6 orders and 11 families were recorded in the Rudong wetland. The wintering population of three species in a single survey exceeded 1% of their global populations. There were no significant differences in the species number of waterbirds, number of individual waterbirds, or diversity index between the two wetlands in different years. The waterbird density of the Tiaozini wetland was significantly higher than that of the Rudong wetland. Ponds and tidal flats were the main habitats for wintering waterbirds. The species composition, community similarity index, and diversity index of the waterbirds in the two habitats of the Dongtai and Rudong wetlands were different. Some reasonable suggestions for the protection and management of waterbirds and their habitats are put forward. Enhancing active waterbird monitoring should play an important ecological role in the protection of East Asian-Australasian Flyways.
Analysis of Diversity and Fauna of Butterfly in Wuchagou Area, Central Part of Daxing'anling Mountains
YAN Wei-dong, ZHANG Sha, ZHENG Hong-liang, FANG Ming, LI Jun-lan
2021, 37(9):  1183-1189.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0770
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In order to understand the community structure and geographical character of butterfly in middle section of Daxing'anling Mountains, the diversity of butterfly in Wuchagou area in five habitats (mountain meadow, mountain deciduous broad-leaved forest, swamp meadow, farmland and mountain coniferous forest) was investigated in July-August, 2019. The results show that 5 families, 44 genera, 65 species, 856 individuals were recorded. The dominant family was Nymphalidae. Lycaenidae and Pieridae were common groups, and Hesperiidae and Papilionidae were rare groups. The dominant species were Leptidea amurensis, Aphantopus hyperantus, Argynnis paphia, Fabriciana adippe and Minois dryas. Analysis of butterfly diversity in different habitat types showed the mountain meadow with highest diversity index (3.115 2) and evenness index (0.898 8), the mountain deciduous broad-leaved forest with the highest abundance index (6.838 6), and the farmland with the highest dominance index (0.089 2). The similarity analysis of five habitats show that the coefficients between different habitats were 0.25-0.50, for medium dissimilarity. The results of the fauna analysis show the dominant of Palaeartic-Oriental common species. As for Chinese Fauna, there were 65 species (100%) recorded in Mongolia-Xinjiang region, followed by Northeast region with 62 species (95.38%). As for the Inner Mongolian fauna, there were 65 species (100%) recorded in Daxing'anling Mountain sub-region, followed by Inner Mogolian Plateau subregion with 57 species (87.69%). These community structure and geographical characters of butterfly is closely related to the geographical location of Wuchagou area.
The Distribution of Ground-active Arthropod Communities in Aged Lycium barbarum Plantations in Arid Oasis Region
BAI Yan-jiao, LIU Ren-tao, CHANG Hai-tao
2021, 37(9):  1190-1199.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0627
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An investigation on the community distribution of ground-active arthropods was carried on in Lycium barbarum plantations by the method of pitfall traps. The aged L. barbarum plantations of 1, 3, 5, 8, 10 years were selected as sampling sites at Zhongning County in arid oasis region of Ningxia, and the adjacent farmland served as the control. The results show that:(1) There were effect of aged plantations on the dominant index and group numbers of dominant groups and taxa groups, while there was considerable effect on the dominant index and group numbers of common groups. There were peaks of dominance index and group numbers of common group in 3- and 10-year-old plantations. In addition, there was an increasing-decreasing individual trend of predatory, phytophagous, omnivorous and saprophytic arthropods, and there was a peak in 8-, 3-, 3- and 8-year-old plantations, respectively. (2) There was a increasing-decreasing trend of individual and richness of ground-active arthropods along with aged plantations, with a peak in 8- and 3-year-old plantations, respectively. There was significantly lower Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index of ground-active arthropods in 5- and 10-year-old plantations, respectively. (3) The results from RDA and pRDA analysis show that plant height, plant crown width and soil pH were the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of ground-active arthropod communities in aged L. barbarum plantations. It is concluded that there was a remarkable change of composition of ground-active arthropod communities during the growth process of L. barbarum plantations converted from the cropland in arid oasis region of Ningxia; especially the composition of common groups showed strong changes. In addition, the individual and richness of ground-active arthropods decreased from the croplands toward aged L. barbarum plantations, whereas there was a high diversity of ground-active arthropods during the period between 3- and 8-year-old L. barbarum plantations.
Characteristics of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Relationship with Other Soil Physicochemical Properties in Larix gmelinii Forest
WANG Bing, ZHOU Yang, ZHANG Qiu-liang
2021, 37(9):  1200-1208.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0855
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The characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its correlation with physicochemical indexes in different types of Larix gmelinii forest were studied based on field investigation and laboratory analysis. The results show that:(1) SOC contents were 13.42-142.18 g·kg-1 with an average of 53.35 g·kg-1 in 0-60 cm soil layer of Larix gmelinii forests, which presented an obvious surface aggregation and decreased as a power function pattern with soil depth. (2) SOC contents of different forest types ranked as:Ledum palustre-Larix gmelinii forest (64.14 g·kg-1) > Rhododendron simsii-Larix gmelinii forest (63.48 g·kg-1) > grass-Larix gmelinii forest (39.99 g·kg-1). In the layer of 0-10 cm, SOC content in grass-Larix gmelinii forest was significantly lower than that of Ledum palustre-Larix gmelinii and Rhododendron simsii-Larix gmelinii forests; in which the differences were decreased with the increase of soil depth. (3) The highest contents of soil water and K2O were found in soils from Ledum palustre-Larix gmelinii forest, the highest values of bulk density, available potassium, organic phosphorus and available phosphorus in soils were found in Rhododendron simsii-Larix gmelinii forest, and the highest values of pH, ammonium nitrogen, Na2O, MgO, Al2O3, CaO and Fe2O3 in soils were found in grass-Larix gmelinii forest. The significant differences of the indexes were found between the grass-Larix gmelinii forest and Ledum palustre-Larix gmelinii, Rhododendron simsii-Larix gmelinii forests. (4) SOC content was positively correlated with soil water content, contents of ammonium nitrogen, available potassium and organic phosphorus, and negatively correlated with pH value. SOC content was negatively correlated with metal oxides contents, except for CaO content. According to multiple regression results, the undergrowth vegetation was an important origin of SOC in Larix gmelinii forest,[JP3]and the SOC contents in Ledum palustre-Larix gmelinii and Rhododendron simsii-Larix gmelinii forests were higher than that in grass-Larix gmelinii forest. In the process of forest management and vegetation restoration, the scientific and reasonable measures on restoration and management of undergrowth vegetation should be made to promote the coordinated growth of undergrowth vegetation and upper forest.
Study on the Tolerance and Detoxification Mechanisms of Lantana camara under the Combined Stress of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc
XIE Yi-hui, ZHANG Ming-hua, XIONG Rui, LI Ting, PU Yu-lin, XU Xiao-xun, LI Yun, ZHANG Shi-rong, JIA Yong-xia
2021, 37(9):  1209-1217.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.1027
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Lantana camara is considered to have high tolerance to the Cd, Pb and Zn co-contaminated soil because it can grow normally in Pb-Zn mining area. However, its tolerance and detoxification mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the biomass, relative electrical conductivity, heavy metal content, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd, Pb and Zn in L. camara. The results reveal that:(1) With the increase in the concentrations of heavy metals compound pollution, the biomass of L. camara first increased and then decreased. And it was not until T6[w(Cd) as 60 mg·kg-1, w(Pb) as 800 mg·kg-1, w(Zn) as 1 000 mg·kg-1] treatment that its growth was significantly inhibited; (2) The relative electrical conductivity in roots and leaves of L. camara gradually increased with the rising concentrations of heavy metals, and were significantly higher than that in the control in T3[w(Cd) as 10 mg·kg-1, w(Pb) as 200 mg·kg-1, w(Zn) as 400 mg·kg-1] and T4[w(Cd) as 20 mg·kg-1, w(Pb) as 400 mg·kg-1, w(Zn) as 600 mg·kg-1] treatments, respectively; (3) The Cd concentrations in various parts of L. camara showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increase of pollution; the Pb and Zn concentrations continued to rise. The content of Cd and Zn in roots of L. camara was higher than that in shoots, and the content of Pb was contrast; (4) Cd and Pb were mainly distributed in the soluble fraction (45.2%-62.5% and 44.2%-66.7%, respectively), followed by the cell wall (29.7%-44.0% and 25.2%-44.1%, respectively), while the concentration of Zn in the soluble fraction (39.2%-52.4%) was similar to that in the cell wall (39.8%-50.4%). A minor part of Cd, Pb and Zn (7.1%-12.2%, 6.0%-13.1% and 4.8%-11.6%, respectively) accumulated in the organelles; (5) Most of Cd, Pb and Zn in the plant organ were mainly in the forms of NaCl and HAc extractable, accounting for 50.7%-73.2%, 47.9%-58.9% and 46.7%-63.2% of total Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively, while the 80% ethanol extractable and deionized water extractable forms accounted for 14.2%-20.8%, 14.6%-28.4% and 19.6%-32.2%, respectively. These results show that L. camara has high tolerance to the Cd, Pb and Zn co-contaminated soil, and the retention of Cd and Zn in the roots, the store of a large amount of heavy metal in cell wall and soluble fraction, and the formation of less toxic chemical forms are important detoxification mechanisms in L. camara.
Hazardous Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Vitrification Product of Tungsten Slag
MA Bing, DU Bu-yun, YAN Xiao-fei, KANG Guo-dong
2021, 37(9):  1218-1224.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0778
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In order to reduce the hazardous characteristics of tungsten slag from the manufacturing of ammonium paratungstate and to minimize the ecological environment pollution risk in the process of disposal and utilization, vitrification, considered as a promising technology for the management of hazardous wastes, is adopted to dispose the hazardous wastes for tungsten slag, which achieves the goals of reduction, innocent treatment and resource utilization. This study focused on the utilization of tungsten slag. Various proportions of diatomite, quicklime and aluminum oxide were adjusted to control the alkalinity of raw material, and the different melting temperatures as well as the holding times were set to prepare the glassy product. The results show that the main heavy metals in tungsten slag were Mn, As, Pb, Hg, Cr, Cu and Zn. By means of an appropriate technique (temperature:1 500℃, holding time:1.0 h, alkalinity:0.15-0.46), a vitrified product characterized with dense homogenous structure, low porosity and smooth appearance can be made. Compared with HJ/T 299-2007 and HJ/T 300-2007, the toxic substances in the finished samples were much lower than that of the limited value in GB 5085.3-2007 and GB 16889-2008, respectively. Furthermore, the vitrified product had excellent mechanical properties (robustness value:1.08%-3.47%, crushing value:2.47%-10.05%), which were much lower than that of the limited value in Standard for JGJ 52-2006. Therefore, this vitrified product is qualified as an alternative impermeable material for landfill use since it has excellent impermeability and permeability coefficients ranged from 1×10-8-1×10-9 cm·s-1. The results also show that after being disposed by the vitrification technology, the heavy metal leaching toxicity and the hazardous characteristics of vitrified samples were significantly reduced to satisfy the harmless disposal. The physical chemistry properties and anti-seepage effect of vitreous met the performance requirements of potential applications such as the concrete sand and the alternative impermeable material.