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Table of Content

Volume 37 Issue 10
25 October 2021
A Review of Policies and Measures for Agricultural Biodiversity Conservation in China and Outlook for Post 2020
LIU Yun-hui, WANG Shi-hao, CHEN Bao-xiong, FAN Shun-xiang, YU Zhen-rong
2021, 37(10):  1225-1233.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0135
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Agricultural biodiversity is an important component of biodiversity and provides ecological services needed for human sustainable development. While the importance of agricultural biodiversity conservation is far less publicly recognized than that for nature conservation. As a large agricultural country, and one of the counties with the richest biodiversity in the world as well as one of the earliest party of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), China should taken further measures to strengthen the conservation of agricultural biodiversity for a better implementation of the CBD and development of sustainable agriculture. This paper reviews policies, conservation measures and achievements of agricultural diversity conservation in China during the last decades. In summary, concerns on agricultural biodiversity conservation were gradually increased, and great achievements have been reached in the conservation of genetic resources, fish resources, and animal husbandry resources as well as in the control of invasive species. However, agricultural diversity in China is still facing the threats of habitat degradation and destruction, species invasion, genetic resources loss, environmental pollution, as well as climate change. In face of the increasing concern on agrobiodiversity conservation in global biodiversity conservation strategy after 2020, the following six suggestions are proposed for the improvement of the conservation of agrobiodiversity, including:establishing a national survey and monitoring system for agro-biodiversity; establishing a national plan for biodiversity conservation in agricultural areas, and integrating agricultural diversity conservation with ecological restoration and sustainable agricultural development; improving legislation and policy, and ecological compensation measures for agricultural diversity conservation; improving legislation and policies for alien species control; strengthening research on approaches and technologies for the conservation and utilization of agricultural biodiversity; strengthening science popularization education and promoting public participation.
A Preliminary Study on Scenarios for Biodiversity Targets in China Based on the “Nature Futures Framework”
YU Dan-dan, TONG Wen-jun, LIU Wei, YI Jian-feng, CHEN Meng-meng, CAO Ming-chang, XU Hai-gen
2021, 37(10):  1234-1241.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0237
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Biodiversity targets have significant implications for mankind to curb the biodiversity loss. Scenarios are considered as indispensable tools to make such science-based targets well established and implemented. They can facilitate to examine the impact of different pathways and policy choices of future human development on nature and nature's contribution to people. The scenarios and models task force of the Intergovernmental Science Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) has developed the "Nature Futures Framework" (NFF) using an iterative and participatory scenario design approach through co-production of visions with a diversity of stakeholders. The "NFF framework" puts human-nature relationships at its core, perceives the multiple values of nature, and explores effective pathways to reverse the biodiversity decline and enhance nature's contribution to people. To ensure the diversity and inclusiveness of future scenarios under the "NFF framework", multi-level case studies should be urgently carried out at the regional or national scales. Here, we review the methodological process of developing scenario narratives, propose the key points for creating scenarios of biodiversity targets in China and establish three sets of positive scenarios for "Beautiful China" "Harmonious China" and "Smart China" based on the "NFF framework".
Study on the Indicator System for Quantitatively Measuring the Biodiversity Contributions to Human Well-being
LIU Yu-ping, SHI Pei-rong, ZHANG Zhi-ru, WAN Hua-wei, PENG Yu, WANG Yong-cai
2021, 37(10):  1242-1248.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0195
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Biodiversity is one of critical indicators to human survival and related to human well-being. Quantitatively assesses of biodiversity's contribution to human well-being is a research hotpot. This paper constructs an indicator system for the evaluation of the biodiversity contributions to human well-being, which is from three aspects namely material contribution, ecological regulation contribution and spiritual culture. The weights of indicators were confirmed by mark experts. This indicator system could be well used to assess the biodiversity contributions to human well-being on multiscale. Furthermore, this indicator system allows to add the characteristic indicators reflecting the local characteristics in the three-levels, which brings the flexibility and promoting delicacy research at the local scale. This paper could provide an important scientific basis for decision making with biodiversity conservation, ecosystem management and human well-being in China.
Analysis of the Progress on the Agriculture-related “Aichi Biodiversity Targets”
FAN Shun-xiang, HU Fei-long, LIU Yun-hui
2021, 37(10):  1249-1255.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0123
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Agriculture is the primary driver of global land-use changes and habitat loss leading to a great threat to biodiversity. The implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity "Aichi Targets" is an important initiative to promote the global conservation of biodiversity, of which the sustainable use of agriculture mentioned in target 7 is related to the conservation of agricultural biodiversity directly, targets 1,4,5,8,13,14,15, and 18 also contribute to the achievement of target 7. Understanding and evaluating the progress of these agriculture-related "Aichi Targets" are essential to adjust, revise, and set up the goals of global agricultural biodiversity. In this study, we collected information on the progress of all parties' targets submitted to the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and compared progress across continents and the countries possessing high biodiversity levels or the big agricultural country. The results showed that Asia, Africa, and South America have achieved more targets than the global averages, while the targets achieved by North America and Europe are below the global averages. South Africa and China did the best of all seven selected countries, followed by India, Brazil, France, Germany, and Canada, showing a generally same trend with the continents-level analysis. The overall goals have gained some progress already, but the conservation of agricultural biodiversity was hard to effectively achieve. By analyzing the progress and problems of accomplishing the goals, we advised to improve the biodiversity conservation targets from four aspects, such as setting up differentiated goals, adding new quantifiable goals, setting new technical indicators, and strengthening communication and cooperation. This paper puts forward and improves the idea of developing agricultural biodiversity indicators and provides a scientific basis for the development of agriculture-related targets and indicators for the Fifteenth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP15) of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
An Integrated Platform for Biodiversity Assessment Policy Tools
TONG Wen-jun, YU Dan-dan, LE Zhi-fang, CAO Ming-chang, XU Hai-gen
2021, 37(10):  1256-1263.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0241
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Building policy tools for biodiversity assessment plays an important role in strengthening the assessment and management of biodiversity, as well as improving decision-making related to biodiversity conservation. However, there is still a lack of policy tools for biodiversity assessment. The relationship between biodiversity assessment and policy making was analyzed on the basis of the latest concepts, policy tools and methods for ecological environmental protection around the world. An integrated platform for biodiversity assessment policy tools was developed to combine biodiversity conservation objectives at all levels into regional and industry development planning and decision-making. The integrated platform consists of four subsystems:policy tool introduction, policy design, policy progress and policy effect. With this platform, the core functions of an indicator system for managing biodiversity assessment, policy design, policy progress assessment, and production of assessment results can be realized. Jiangsu Province was chosen as a case study area to verify the applicability and feasibility of the integrated platform for biodiversity assessment policy tools in multi-level biodiversity conservation target design.
Determination of the Benthic Biodiversity Protection Targets in Xiamen Sea Area
FU Shi-feng, WU Hai-yan, CAI Xiao-qiong
2021, 37(10):  1264-1270.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0222
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Taking Xiamen Sea area as research area, this study designed a quantitative sea area utilization intensity index based on 14 sea use activities of 5 sea use types, including land reclamation, tourism and recreation, port and shipping, fishery and industry. According to the sea area utilization intensity and benthic biodiversity data from 1980 to 2016, the relationship model between sea area utilization intensity index and benthic biodiversity was established to predict the benthic biodiversity protection targets under different scenarios. The results show that the sea area utilization intensity index was significantly negatively correlated with most of the benthic biodiversity indices, which indicate that the designed index is reliable. Among the benthic biodiversity indices, the Shannon diversity index H' was found a significant relationship model with the sea area utilization intensity index by using multiple regression analysis, and was mainly affected by reclamation, fishing, and industrial and domestic sewage discharge. Under the "trend scenario", "planning scenario" and "optimal scenario", the average benthic H' in Xiamen Sea area in 2035 will be 2.88, 3.14 and 3.06, respectively. In 2035, the biodiversity conservation target in Xiamen Sea area should be set as the benthic H' not less than 3.06, and biodiversity conservation and ecological restoration should be strengthened in the Western Sea area and the Jiulong River estuary.
Effects of Land Use Intensity Change on Biodiversity in Agricultural Areas
FENG Si-jie, CHEN Bao-xiong, LIU Yun-hui
2021, 37(10):  1271-1280.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0150
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Landscape change resulted from agricultural intensification is an importantdriver for the loss of biodiversity in agricultural landscape. In order to assess the impacts of agricultural landscape structure change on species diversity and explore future trends in the change of biodiversity, a biodiversity database with dataset from 298 farmland plots with different landuse intensity across the country has been established and a total of 15 042 species records were collected.Then, based on Meta-Analysis, a farmland landuse intensities-biodiversity relationship model using linear mixed effect model was built; Taking Zhejiang Province as a case, the spatial distribution of land-use was simulated by using Dyna-CLUE model under different scenarios combining with land-use policies and plannings of Zhejiang Province, such as returning farmland to forest, and converting conventional farming to ecological farming, etc.; Finally, the simulated land use spatial distribution and the land use intensity-biodiversity relationship model were combined as inputs of the Flus-Biodiversity model to predict the spatial distribution pattern of biodiversity in typical agricultural areas, and an optimized planning for the farm land biodiversity conservation in Zhejiang Province was proposed. The results of meta-analysis show that biodiversity decreased significantly with the increase of landuse intensity at both landscape and local management scales. Biodiversity decreased in all scenarios with the lowest decrease in the ecological conservation scenario, while biodiversity increased when conventional farmland was converted to ecological farmland. In conclusion, in order to improve the biodiversity conservation, enhance the ecosystem services, and restore the ecological environment, firstly, the natural and semi-natural habitats surrounding farmland should be protected as much as possible to reduce the impact of landuse changes on agricultural biodiversity. Secondly, it is also essential to increase semi-natural habitats such as plantations in agricultural landscapes to optimize the agricultural landscape pattern. Thirdly, to develop organic farming or ecological farming, which calls for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, is also critical to the improvement of regional conservation of biodiversity; Finally, under the premise of ensuring the red line of cultivated land, the policy of returning farmland to forests should be further promoted and land development in ecological function reserves should be more strictly restricted. Meanwhile, attention should be paid to protect the areas suffering from serious loss of biodiversity intacness.
Review on Soil Microbial Patterns along the Elevation Gradient Based on the Knowledge Mapping Analysis
ZHOU Yu-jie, JIA Xia, ZHAO Yong-hua, WANG Xi, YE Xuan, AN Yi-ren
2021, 37(10):  1281-1291.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0039
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Soil microbes are the essential participants in ecosystem processes, controlling the turnover of the largest organic matter pool in the terrestrial biosphere. In recent years, the variations of soil microbial diversity patterns and community structures with the elevation have been extensively studied. "Elevation gradient" and "Soil fertilization" were selected as the keywords, and a total of 717 papers were collected from the "Web of Science" core collection database and CNKI for number of posts analyses, keyword co-occurrence and literature co-citation cluster analyses by using Citespace visual literature. The results show that the research on the response of soil microorganisms to elevation gradients had been growing rapidly since 2000 and there was consistency in the domestic and international research trends. It was found that "forest", "elevation", "soil fungi" and "plant" were the frequency characteristics of keywords, which further indicates that the spatial variation of soil microorganisms was one of the important research directions in forest ecosystems. In addition, soil microbial diversity and community structures showed the following five clear altitudinal distribution patterns at the regional spatial scale:increasing, decreasing, "peak", "U" pattern and no significant changes. Moreover, the environmental driving factors of soil microbial communities were also controversial, including soil nutrients, vegetation specificity and climatic factors. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the distribution change mechanism of soil microbial community and diversity in the future according to the characteristics of the study region, so as to reveal the variation degree of soil characteristics and microbial community at different scales, and further quantify the relationship between soil microbial community and related environmental factors. It provides novel insights for the study of the basic distribution and dynamics of microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems.
Effects of the Co-culture of Rice and Aquatic Animals on Soil Eco-system: A Review
LI Wen-bo, LIU Shao-jun, YE Xin-xin, GAO Hong-jian
2021, 37(10):  1292-1300.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0944
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The co-culture of rice and aquatic animals mode (CRAA) not only maintains the yield of rice crops, but also brings about higher income for the farmers and a win-win outcome for both agriculture and aquaculture. Meanwhile, CRAAs can have significant impacts on the ecosystem of paddy fields. This paper reviews the most recent findings in regards to the effects of various CRAAs such as rice-fish, rice-crayfish, rice-crab, rice-turtle and rice-duck on soil physical-chemical properties, soil animals, soil microorganisms, and paddy field ecosystem services. Our review suggests that CRAA reduces soil bulk density, improves soil porosity, soil aggregate stability and soil fertility. In addition, it changes the abundance and community structure of soil animals, increases the number and activity of soil microorganisms and adjusts the composition and diversity of the microbial communities. Moreover, CRAA promotes the cultural service functions of paddy ecosystem. Nevertheless, CRAA may aggravate the soil gleization and cause the accumulation of heavy metals and pollutants in soil. The impacts of CRAA on the food supply and greenhouse gas emissions from paddy field soils remain controversy. We should further clarify the long-term effects of CRAA on soil physical, chemical and biological properties,discuss the differences in soil material, energy and information flow processes, soil ecosystem services and their mechanisms under different CRAA modes. In addition, the key technologies aiming to apply CRAA in agriculture should be further integrated and extended in the futureto achieve sustainable development of agriculture.
Impact of Rural Residents' Ecological Cognition and Relationship on Their Cooperative Behavior in the Domestic Garbage Management: Based on the Survey Data of Fixed Observation Points in Rural Areas of Fujian Province
LIN Li-mei, HE Xiu-ling, HAN Ya-qing
2021, 37(10):  1301-1309.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.1028
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It is of great theoretical and practical significance to clarify the behavioral logic of rural residents' participation in the cooperative treatment of domestic garbage to improve the level of rural ecological environment renovation. Based on the survey data of 501 rural residents in Fujian Province, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to estimate the impact of rural residents'ecological cognition and relationship on their cooperative behavior in their domestic garbage management. The results show that rural residents' ecological cognition of attitude toward the behavior (ATT) and subjective norm (SN) have significant positive impacts on their cooperative behavior. The relationship not only directly affects their cooperative governance behavior, but also indirectly affects the cooperative governance behavior through the ATT and SN. The relationship is the largest influence on the cooperative garbage management behavior of rural residents, followed by ATT, and the least is SN. The results of multi-group analysis show that the relationship and ecological cognition of different types of rural residents groups have significant differences on their governance behaviors. In particular, ecological cognition has not been well transformed into their actual cooperative governance behavior.
Effect of Adopting Agricultural Green Production Technology on Farmers Income: Data Verification from Tea Farmers
CHEN Mei-ying, HUANG Shou-xian, ZHANG Fan, DANG Qing-qing, XIA Kang-yao, CHEN Zhen, YUAN Lu
2021, 37(10):  1310-1317.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0175
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Green production technology is of great significance to the high-quality development of agriculture and rural revitalization. Based on the survey data of tea growers in Fujian Province, the paper empirically analyzed the effect of green production technology adoption on Farmers' income and its mechanism by using endogenous transformation model. The results show that:(1) the adoption of green production technology can significantly improve the income level of tea farmers. The annual total income of the tea farmers who have adopted green production technology could be increased by 32.60%. (2) Green production technology could have complementary effect. Tea farmers who have used both organic fertilizer and bio pesticide could get far greater family income than those who have only adopted one the two green production technologies. (3) From the perspective of mechanism, the adoption of green production technology makes tea obtain higher market price, and tea farmers are committed to expanding their planting area in order to obtain scale effect. In view of above, the government should strengthen the policy support for the promotion and application of green production technology, especially to encorage the joint promotion of a number of green production technologies, and strengthen the construction of green technology team.
Study on Spatial-temporal Collocation of Integrated Territory Consolidation Based on Rural Social-ecological System Vulnerability
REN Guo-ping, LIU Li-ming, LI Hong-qing, YIN Gang
2021, 37(10):  1318-1330.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0832
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The accurate evaluation of rural vulnerability and identification of its spatial differentiation is the basis for rational development planning and accurate implementation of the strategies to promote rural revitalization. Focused on the problem that the weight distribution of efficiency model affects the accuracy of evaluation results, this research studied the framework of stress shock chain analysis with the introduction of disaster vulnerability theory to define the regional social-ecological system vulnerability connotation and formation mechanism. Three kinds of efficiency evaluation models were used to evaluate and compare 184 administrative villages in Qingpu District of Shanghai in 2018, and the comprehensive ranking method of ‘vulnerability grade-fragile spatial agglomeration characteristic-fragile size’ was used to design the sequence of integrated territory consolidation. The obtained results are as follows:(1) The formative process of formation of the combined capacity of the regional social-ecological systems to respond to the differences in vulnerability, resistance, adaptability and resiliency in combination with the change of ‘environment-socio-economic’ pressure was consistent with the vulnerability efficiency of ‘pressure input-capacity output’. (2) The EW-ACE-DEA model based on entropy weight aggregation was more reliable and accurate for the evaluation of regional social-ecological system vulnerability. In the year of 2018, the average social-ecological system vulnerability of the administrative village in this region was 0.595, the range of the whole region was[0.404, 0.787], and the spatial trend was gradually decreasing from east to west. (3) According to the comprehensive ranking method of the regional vulnerability grade and the spatial agglomeration characteristic and value of vulnerability, the sequence of integrated territory consolidation in this area can be reasonably planned. The comprehensive regulation of administrative villages in Qingpu District can be divided into five categories:short-term (33 villages), short-medium-term (45 villages), medium-term (41 villages), medium-long-term (38 villages) and long-term (27 villages). The research results could enrich the theory of rural geography and provide decision basis for rural regional governance, rural revitalization and regional sustainable development.
Effects of Cadmium and Lead Stress on Growth and Photosynthetic Physiology of Populus yunnanensis Seedlings
ZHENG Wu-yang, WANG Yan-xia, ZHENG Yan-fang, LI Jing-feng
2021, 37(10):  1331-1340.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0864
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In order to explore the growth and photosynthetic physiological responses of Populus yunnanensis under cadmium and lead stress, hydroponics was used to carry out stress experiment on P. yunnanensis seedlings. The results show that under cadmium stress, the plant height of P.yunnanensis had no significant change, while the total root length decreased significantly, and the ground diameter increased significantly at the cadmium concentration of 100 μmol·L-1. Under Pb stress, the plant height and total root length of P.yunnanensis decreased significantly, while the ground diameter increased significantly at Pb concentrations of 50 and 100 μmol·L-1. Under Cd and Pb stress, MDA content increased with the increase of stress concentration, and total phenol content increased significantly only at the stress concentration of 100 and 200 μmol·L-1. The chlorophyll content of 200 μmol·L-1 Cd treatment, 100 μmol·L-1 Pb treatment was significantly lower than that of 0 μmol·L-1 Pb and Cd treatment (control). The maximum photochemical efficiency and potential activity of PS Ⅱ were significantly lower than those of control at 100 μmol·L-1cadmium concentration. Under cadmium stress, the net photosynthetic rate of P.yunnanensis decreased with the increase of stress concentration, while under lead stress, the net photosynthetic rate first increased and then decreased with the increase of stress concentration. The tolerance of P. yunnanensis to Cd was the strongest when the concentration was 50 μmol·L-1, and it was the strongest when the concentration was 100 μmol·L-1 under Pb stress, and the tolerance to Cd was stronger than that to Pb.
Study on the N Purification of Eutrophic Water by Floating Plant-sediment-microbial System
WU Shu-ting, ZHOU Zhi-dong, HUA Jian-feng, YIN Yun-long, XUE Jian-hui
2021, 37(10):  1341-1351.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2021.0091
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Floating plantsare characterized by suspendingthemselves on the water surface. They have great adaptability to water depth and distinctive capacityfor reproductive and nutrients absorption. Besides, they are easy for planting, harvesting and daily management. As we know, water eutrophication is an increasing problem in China. Because ofthe excellent features, floating plants are widely used in the construction of wetlands to control water eutrophication. In addition to the direct absorption and indirect rhizosphericeffects of aquatic plants, the adsorption and interception of sediments, and microbial degradation couldsignificantly remove water pollutants. Yet, the roles of aquatic plants, sediments and microorganisms in nutrient removalwithin the same natural experimental system are still unclear. By simulating wet land ecosystem, this research studied the changes of nitrogen (N) content in water, plants and sediments as well as the rhizosphere microbial community structure, aiming to clarify the purification approach of N in eutrophic water by plant-sediment-microbial system.The results show that after 40 d treatments, the removal rates of NH4+-N, NO3--N and TN in both control and plant treatments were higher than 87% in medium and high N systems. In most cases, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Nymphaea tetragona was more suitable to grow in high N system that was demonstrated by the greatest biomass and N accumulation among 4 tested plants.In low and medium N systems, sediments inorganic nitrogen (IN) content in control was significantly higher than that in the plant treatments. However, in the high N system, there was no significant difference between control and plant treatments where the IN concentration showed an increasing trend.In addition, there were no significant differences in the rhizosphere bacteria α diversity index and community structure between the plant and control groups. Compared with unsterilized treatments, sediments sterilization significantly increased the contents of NH4+-N and TN in water as well as IN in sediments. It can be concluded that,besides the plant absorption, the N could besignificantly removed by microbial function and sedimentation in this experimental system, which provides a scientific basis for efficient purification of eutrophic water in wetland ecosystem.
Effects of Aquatic Plant Restoration on Water Quality and Microbial Functional Diversity of Wanshan Lake
WANG Xin, HE Shang-wei, PAN Ji-zheng, LI Yong, ZHANG Guo-zheng, YING Yan-jie
2021, 37(10):  1352-1360.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2020.0913
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Wanshan Lake in Taihu Watershed was selected as the research area to explore the effect of ecological restoration on the improvement of water quality and the impact on the metabolic function of microbial community. Aiming to the restoration of aquatic plants, measures such as reshaping of topography and establishing of ecological buffer zone were taken to create suitable ecological environment conditions in Wanshan Lake from March to June of 2019. The aquatic plants and water quality in the northwest part of the lake including restoration area, pelagic area and control area were monitored from August 2019 to August 2020. Biolog technology was used to analyze the metabolic functions of microbial community in the research area in summer after the recovery of aquatic plants. The results show that the species, coverage and diversity of aquatic plants, especially for the submerged aquatic plants, in the restoration area were largely improved. The transparency of water body was significantly improved in the restoration area, which was 23% and 30% higher than that of the pelagic area and the control area, respectively. The concentrations of TN, NH4+-N and TP of the restoration area were 32%, 28% and 28% lower than that of the pelagic area, respectively, and 19%, 32% and 31% lower than that of the control area, respectively. Moreover, the removal of Chl-a and CODMn were insignificant, which was related to the geographical location and hydrology of the restoration area. The recovery of aquatic plants could promote the response of microbial communities to utilize organic matter and then improve the metabolic activity of microorganisms and self-purification ability of the lake.