Table of Content

Volume 39 Issue 1
25 January 2023
Comparative Analysis on the Protection Policies and Researches of Insect Pollinator Diversity in Western Countries and China
OLHNUUD Aruhan, ZHANG Qi-yu, LIU Yun-hui
2023, 39(1):  1-11.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0215
Abstract ( 221 )   HTML ( 89)   PDF (1777KB) ( 108 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
As the main pollinator, insect pollinator provides essential pollination services for plant reproduction and evolution, and is important resource for sustainable agricultural production. In past few decades, the abundance and diversity of insect pollinators worldwide have decreased dramatically due to various environmental pressures, that gradually raised the concerns on the diversity and conservation of insect pollinators and also greatly promoted the formulation of national policies of insect pollinator protection in many countries. In this paper, the current national policies of insect pollinator protection in main Western countries (UK, Germany, The Netherlands, US) and China are compared from three aspects, including policy development process, protection measures and incentive measures, and the benefits of national insect pollinator conservation policies in several Western countries are evaluated. The progress of pollinator research is reviewed by using Cite space bibliometrics and visualization methods. Finally, the following suggestions are proposed for the conservation and restoration of insect pollinator diversity in China: (1) Strengthening the assessment of insect pollinator resources and scientific research on sustainable utilization of insect pollinator diversity; (2) Promoting national strategy of insect pollinator diversity conservation to encourage the restoration of wild insect pollinator's habitat and the associated pollination service, giving priority to conserve endangered species and local native species as well, and integrating pollinator conservation into the mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation; (3) Developing pollinator-friendly pesticide use policies and measures; (4) Developing an ecological compensation mechanism for insect pollinator diversity protection and pollination service management, and encourage farmers to participate in insect pollinator diversity protection; (5) Strengthening policy evaluation and tracking.
Progress in the Study on Ageing Behavior of Microplastics and Its Effect on Heavy Metal Adsorption
CHEN Su, LIU Ying, ZHANG Xiao-ying, FENG Tian-zhen, CHAO Lei
2023, 39(1):  12-19.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0217
Abstract ( 255 )   HTML ( 24)   PDF (864KB) ( 182 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Microplastics are regarded as the ideal carriers of pollutants present in the environment due to their small particle size, large specific surface area and high hydrophobicity. At present, microplastic pollution has become a health concern worldwide. Microplastics are commonly found in water, soil and the atmosphere, the concentration of which varies from region to region. The microplastics existing in the environment are often subject to ageing effects due to solar irradiation, oxidation and mechanical wear, which causes change to their physicochemical properties and triggers their interaction with pollutants. As for the current research on microplastic-pollutant interactions, it focuses on organic pollutants, and the researches on exploring the ageing behaviour of microplastics, its effect on heavy metal adsorption and the mechanisms behind it are just in the initial stage. An overview of the current status of research on microplastic ageing, including surface changes, functional group changes, crystallinity changes and release of plastic additives before and after ageing. Besides, the progress made in studying the effects of ageing microplastics on heavy metal adsorption and its mechanisms are explored. On this basis, the future directions of research are indicated. It is expected to provide a practical reference for fully understanding the current status of research on microplastics and its future directions.
Spatiotemporal Responses of Habitat Quality to Urban Sprawl in Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle
LIU Ting, TANG Yan-qiu, DING Jia-jia, NIU Jin-lan, GENG Hua
2023, 39(1):  20-28.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0191
Abstract ( 139 )   HTML ( 10)   PDF (2992KB) ( 158 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle is an important water conservation area and the core area of ecological construction in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Comprehensive evaluation of the quality of ecosystems and environment should be aiming to grasp the spatiotemporal responses of habitat quality to urban sprawl, which is of great significance on the construction of ecological security pattern and the maintenance of biodiversity. Based on the land use data of Chengdu-Chongqing area in 2000, 2010 and 2020, the land use degree index, land use dynamic attitude index, InVEST model and bivariate space autocorrelation model have been employed to analyze the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of habitat quality and the intrinsic connection. The results show that, (1) The main types of land use in Chengdu-Chongqing area are cultivated land and forestland, which account for more than 86% of the study area. Over the 20 years, the cultivated land and grassland declined significantly, while the construction land continued to expand, increasing by 148.88%. In comparison with the period of 2000-2010, the conversion of land use in the period of 2010-2020 was more complex, and the dynamic attitude of comprehensive land use increased by 2 times. (2) The habitat quality of Chengdu-Chongqing area was in the medium level or above. The spatial pattern of habitat quality exhibited a low level in "Chengdu Circle and Chongqing Circle" area, medium level in middle area and a high level in surrounding areas. During the 20 years, the proportions of areas with constant, decreasing and increasing habitat quality in the study area were 72.52%, 22.70%, and 4.78%, respectively. In the area of decreasing habitat quality, more than 20% of high-quality habitats lost their ecological functions. (3) There was a significant negative correlation between land use degree and habitat quality in Chengdu-Chongqing area, and the correlation was increasing, and the spatial aggregation in this area is dominated by high land use degree-low habitat quality and low land use degree-high habitat quality.
Quality of Rural Human Settlement in Xin'an River-Qiandao Lake Ecological Compensation Experimental Area,Spatio-temporal Differentiation and Its Influence Mechanism
DONG Dong, LUO Yi, WANG Li-chen, TAI Yu, GU Kang-kang
2023, 39(1):  29-40.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0179
Abstract ( 109 )   HTML ( 7)   PDF (1915KB) ( 79 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
As the first cross-provincial pilot project of ecological compensation in China, the ecological compensation in Xin'an River Basin has gone through three rounds of pilot stages and entered the construction stage of Xin'an River-Qiandao Lake Ecological Compensation Experimental Area. The ecological compensation policy has been extended to rural ecological environment protection and governance, industrial structure adjustment, villagers' employment and living standards and other fields, all of which have direct impacts on the quality of rural living environment. Scientific research on spatio-temporal heterogeneity of rural habitat environment quality and its influence mechanism is of great significance to promote the optimization of ecological compensation mechanism. Therefore, data of 10 counties (districts or cities) in the Xin'an River-Qiandao Lake Ecological Compensation Experimental Area from 2011 to 2019 were selected, and entropy-weighted TOPSIS method and geographically and temporally weighted regression model were applied to comprehensively evaluate the quality of rural habitat environment in this area. The results show that: (1)the comprehensive quality of rural habitat environment, as well as the quality of rural ecological environment and rural living environment subsystems were on the rise in the Xin'an River-Qiandao Lake Ecological Compensation Experimental Area during the study period, while the rural production environment was deteriorating. (2) The spatial distribution of the quality of rural habitat environment in the Xin'an River-Qiandao Lake Ecological Compensation Experimental Area was high in the east and west and low in the middle. (3) In the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of rural habitat environment in the study area, the ecological environment factor is the dominant factor, the ecological compensation policy is the external driving factor, and the production and living environment factors are the internal driving factors. Among them, the ecological compensation index, water quality of Xin'an River Basin, per capita gross output value of rural agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, per capita disposable income in rural areas, the level of rural medical facilities, and the proportion of rural low income households are the main factors driving the improvement of rural habitat environment quality in the Xin'an River-Qiandao Lake Ecological Compensation Experimental Area during the study period, and the influence of those factors has shown a rising trend over time.
Spatiotemporal Change and Prediction of Carbon Storage in Nanjing Ecosystem Based on PLUS Model and InVEST Model
SUN Xin-xin, XUE Jian-hui, DONG Li-na
2023, 39(1):  41-51.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0953
Abstract ( 427 )   HTML ( 27)   PDF (4774KB) ( 183 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Change of land use has important impacts on change of carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems. Studying the spatial layout of land use change and carbon storage can benefit the optimization of territorial space layout and the coordination of relationships between ecological protection and land development and utilization. Based on the land use data of Nanjing from 2000 to 2020, the changes of land use and carbon storage in Nanjing in the 20 years were analyzed using InVEST model, and the carbon storage distributions of Nanjing in 2040 were predicted using PLUS model for different development scenarios. The results show that: (1) Land use change had direct effects on the carbon storage in Nanjing. From 2000 to 2020, the urban construction land increased by 65.62% while the farmland, forest land and grassland reduced; and the carbon storage reduced by 2.62 × 106 t. (2) By 2040, the predicted carbon storage will decline by 2.44 × 105, 1.56 × 106, 1.78 × 106 and 1.62 × 106 t in the scenarios of farmland protection, ecological protection, urban development and natural development, respectively. These predictions indicate that the policies of farmland protection and ecological protection can effectively control the reduction of carbon storage. (3) The spatial distribution of carbon storage was consistent with that of land use distribution. Areas with high carbon storage generally had less construction land and more ecological land. These results suggest that to improve the regional carbon storage level and achieve the goal of carbon neutrality, farmland and ecological land should be protected while construction land expansion should be restricted in the territorial planning in future.
Spatial Flow and Radiation Effect of Sand-fixing Service in Northwest Liaoning Province
WANG Geng, ZHANG Hong-yu
2023, 39(1):  52-59.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0246
Abstract ( 113 )   HTML ( 7)   PDF (1679KB) ( 87 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Studies on the spatial flow of ecosystem services and their radiation area provide insights into the spatial connection between the supply area and the radiation area of ecosystem services. The spatial distribution pattern of sand-fixing service in a study area of northwest Liaoning Province was evaluated based on the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ). The hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate the service space flow path for sand-fixing service, and to recognize, and calculate the sand-fixing radiative effect of the services. The results show that the total amount of sand-fixing service in northwest Liaoning Province in 2020 was 12.2 million tons, the capacity of sand-fixing was higher in the southwest part and lower in the middle and northeast parts of the study area. Sand-fixing service included 195 spatial flow paths, most of which were distributed towards northeast (83) and southeast (70), accounting for 78.46% of the total area. The radiation scope mainly involved Northeast China, North China, Yellow Sea, and Bohai Sea, covering a total area of 1 848 200 km2. Sand-fixing service reduced downwind sand volume by 5 977 800 tons, benefiting 11 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) including Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Shandong, Beijing, Hebei, and Liaoning Provinces, etc. These results constitute a robust quantitative estimation of the sand-fixing service radiation effect of the shelter forest project in northwest Liaoning Province, and could provide a decision-making basis towards strengthening the construction of ecological barriers in this area.
Meta-analysis-based Assessment of Ecosystem Service Value of Heihe Wetland in Zhangye
YANG Xin, HAI Xin-quan, YANG Yu-ting
2023, 39(1):  60-68.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0157
Abstract ( 123 )   HTML ( 10)   PDF (866KB) ( 94 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Through the Meta analysis, the service value database and value transfer model of Zhangye Heihe wetland ecosystem was constructed for the effective evaluation of the value of different types of wetlands in Heihe of Zhangye, and for the comprehensive analysis of the influencing factors of the value. The test on the validity of the model was then conducted. The results indicate that: (1) The service value of Zhangye Heihe wetland ecosystem is RMB 1.941 billion in total, and the value of different types of wetlands from large to small are river wetlands (RMB 618 million), swamp wetlands (RMB 511 million), artificial wetlands (RMB 442 million), other wetlands (RMB 340 million) and lake wetlands (RMB 30 million). (2) The meta regression results reveal that the main factors affecting the change of the service value of Zhangye Heihe wetland ecosystem include the assessment methods, wetland types, ecosystem service types, and wetland area. (3) The validity test results suggest that the transfer error is within the acceptable range. Therefore, applying the constructed meta analysis value transfer model to the evaluation of the service value of Zhangye Heihe wetland ecosystem is an effective method.
Study on the Construction of Ecological Security Pattern in Kunming Based on MSPA and MCR Model
LI Zhi-ying, LI Yuan-yuan, LI Wen-xing, XUE Meng-ke
2023, 39(1):  69-79.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0211
Abstract ( 109 )   HTML ( 8)   PDF (4038KB) ( 88 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
The rapid urbanization of Kunming has an adverse impact on the fragile ecological environment in plateau mountainous area, so it is necessary to build an ecological security pattern based on the results of ecological security. Based on the evaluation of landscape ecological security, the ecological security pattern is constructed by comprehensive ecological protection and construction expansion. Firstly, the evaluation index system of landscape ecological security was constructed from the perspective of "disturbance-effect", and the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of landscape ecological security in Kunming from 1990 to 2018 were analyzed. Secondly, based on the evaluation results, MSPA and landscape connectivity evaluation were used to identify the source of ecological protection, and a large area of construction land patches were selected as the source of construction expansion. Finally, based on the resistance factor evaluation index system, MCR was used to build a comprehensive resistance surface, with the help of ArcGIS spatial analysis to extract ecological corridors and ecological nodes, and then an ecological security pattern was build. The results show that: (1) From 1990 to 2018, the landscape ecological security evaluation value of Kunming decreased from 1 749.37 to 1 727.98, which was higher in the northern mountain valley area, while for the southeast Karst hilly area and the central plateau lake basin region, it was higher around the edge and lower in the center. The landscape ecological security value was rising outward from each district (county or city) of Kunming as the center, forming a "center-periphery" structure. The change of Dianchi Lake basin is the most drastic, and the low value area is encircling Dianchi Lake from east to west, and the expansion path is basically consistent with the urban expansion. (2) The identified sources of ecological protection and construction and expansion accounted for 30.11% and 4.06% of the urban area respectively; 18 important ecological corridors and 37 general ecological corridors have been constructed, and a total of 97 ecological nodes; obtained; ecological conservation areas, ecological expansion areas, optimized buffer zones and ecological protection areas have been established. The study puts forward ecological management and control suggestions for each ecological security zone, in order to maintain regional ecological security of Kunming and promote regional sustainable development.
Geographic Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Seed Plants Species Richness in the Loess Plateau
AN Ke-li, LI Yu-rong, XIONG Dong-yang, LIU Guan, LI Guo-qing
2023, 39(1):  80-89.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0357
Abstract ( 131 )   HTML ( 10)   PDF (1668KB) ( 75 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
The geographical distribution pattern of species richness and its influencing factors have always been the core issues of macroecology, biogeography and conservation biology. The Loess Plateau is a key ecological fragile area in China, and the biodiversity conservation in the region is suffering a severe degradation situation. Understanding the relationship between species diversity and environmental factors is essential for formulating biodiversity conservation strategies. Here, the distribution pattern of seed plant richness in the Loess Plateau and its main environmental interpretation were discussed based on records of seed plants in the nature reserves, as well as their corresponding climate, habitat heterogeneity, and human disturbance factors. The results show that the diversity of seed plants in the Loess Plateau decreases gradually from southeast to northwest, and the species diversity in mountain nature reserves are the highest. Optimal multivariate linear regression show that precipitation, altitude range, net primary productivity range and human footprint are important factors to determine the distribution pattern of seed plants in the Loess Plateau. Variance decomposition show that climate, habitat heterogeneity and human disturbance can explain 52.0%-53.4% of the variation sources of seed plant density and richness, and the relative contribution of climate and habitat heterogeneity is far greater than that of human disturbance. Nature reserves in the Loess Plateau should be established in the mountainous area with abundant hydrothermal and little human disturbance conditions, which is an optimal strategy to protect seed plants diversity of the Loess Plateau.
Bird Diversity of Baigui Lake Natural Reserve in Winter
YANG Xiao-xing, LI Shao-bin, CHEN Tian-en, XIE Zhao-hui
2023, 39(1):  90-96.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0189
Abstract ( 126 )   HTML ( 12)   PDF (1566KB) ( 154 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Bird is an important component of wetland ecosystem and typically considered as an excellent biological and environmental indicator. From December 2019 to December 2021, the diversity of birds in Baigui Lake Natural Reserve was investigated by using line transects and point sample methods. In total, 94 birds of 34 families in 13 orders were recorded, including 2 species listed as Class I and 11 species listed as Class II in Chinese National Protected Wildlife List, and 4 species of key protected birds in Henan Province. The Shannon-Wiener index (H), evenness index (J), Simpson index (D) and Margalef index (M) of birds in the nature reserve are 3.71, 0.57, 0.84, and 9.73, respectively. Fulica atra was the most dominant species. According to the IUCN red list, one species is classified as critically endangered, two species were classified as endangered, two species were classified as near threatened, and one species was classified as vulnerable. For the bird fauna, there are 9 Oriental species, 34 Palaearctic species and 51 widespread species. Regarding the migration status, 30 species are winter visitors, 9 are summer visitors, 26 are residents, and 29 are pass migrants. Diversity index varied in different habitats. The H, J, and D index were higher in rural farmland, artificial bushes and parks, but lower in the lakes, river branches and rocky beach habitats. In contrast, M index was higher in lakes, rural farmlands, river branches, but lower in parks, artificial bushes and rocky beach habitats. This investigation enriched the bird list of Baigui Lake Natural Reserve, and would further benefit waterbirds protection in the area.
Effects of Different Biological Soil Crust Types on Microbial Community Structure and Composition in Baijitan, China
LI Jing-yu, YANG Rui, DUAN Xiao-min, LIU Jian-li, LIU Bing-ru
2023, 39(1):  97-106.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0111
Abstract ( 105 )   HTML ( 9)   PDF (2321KB) ( 63 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Vegetation restoration on the Baijitan National Nature Reserve and in the surrounding areas promotes improvements in the regional ecological environment. A large area of mossy and algal biocrust with a mosaic structure is distributed within the vegetation restoration zone, and this plays an important role in blocking wind, fixing sand and improving the surface soil quality of this desert ecosystem. To fully understand the microbial community structure and differences in different biological soil crusts, sampling sites with a mosaic distribution of mossy and algal biocrust were selected, and the bacteria and fungi within the biocrust were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology. The results show that the α diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities in different biological soil crusts tended to be consistent. The Ace and Chao indices, which only reflected the richness of the bacterial community, were significantly higher in the moss biocrust than in the algal biocrust. The bacterial community was mainly composed of Microvirga, Rubrobacter, Geodermatophilus, Blastococcus, Sphingomonas, Solirubrobacter, Rubellimicrobium, Nocardioides and Bryobacter genera, while the fungal community mainly included Gibberella, Knufia, Mortierella, Endocarpon, Alternaria, Bahusakala, Phaeomycocentrospora, Preussia and Omphalina genera. The relative abundance of Rubrobacter in the mossy biocrust was significantly lower than in the algal biocrust, while the relative abundance of Bryobacter was significantly higher in the mossy biocrust than in the algal biocrust. The relative abundance of Knufia, Bahusakala, Omphalina, Lamprospora, Vishniacozyma, Phoma, Entoloma and Trichoderma genera in the mossy biocrust was significantly higher than in the algal biocrust, while the relative abundance of Powellomyces, Sporormiella, Thielavia, Iodophanus, Agaricus and Acrophialophora genera in the mossy biocrust was significantly lower than in the algal biocrust. Biological soil crust types have a significant impact on the bacterial and fungal community structure, and can explain 14% of the differences in the bacterial community structure and 8% of the differences in the fungal community structure. These results can provide microbial diversity data for an in-depth understanding of the ecological functions of different biological soil crusts in the process of desert ecosystem restoration.
Distribution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Arsenic and Cadmium in Water of Lhasa River Basin
QIN Huan-huan, HUANG Li-xiang, CHEN Yi-ping, GAO Bai, SUN Zhan-xue
2023, 39(1):  107-114.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0268
Abstract ( 104 )   HTML ( 4)   PDF (1075KB) ( 93 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
In order to understand the spatial distribution and health risks of carcinogenic chemicals, As and Cd, in the water bodies of the Lhasa River Basin, water samples were collected from 16 sampling points in the middle and lower reaches of the Lhasa River as well as the Duilongqu tributary. The concentrations of As and Cd in the water samples were tested, and the carcinogenic risks caused by As and Cd through drinking water ingestion were evaluated by a health risk assessment model. The results show that the average concentrations of As and Cd in the river water of the Lhasa River Basin were (2.280±0.969) and (0.092±0.017) μg·L-1, respectively, which meet the Drinking Water Standards in China (GB 5749-2022). These concentrations also qualify as Class I and Class Ⅱ in the Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water in China (GB 3838-2002). The As concentration increased and the Cd concentration decreased along the river in the middle and lower reaches of the Lhasa River, and the concentration of Cd increased along the Duilongqu tributary. Regarding geographical distribution, the As concentration decreased with the increase of latitude and increased with the increase of longitude; the Cd concentration increased with the increase of latitude and decreased with the increase of longitude. The results of health risk assessment show that As was the leading carcinogen in the water bodies of the Lhasa River Basin, contributing to more than 98% of the carcinogenic risk. The overall carcinogenic risk of As and Cd in the Lhasa River Basin is generally at low level through drinking water ingestion. The results also show that young children are more vulnerable to As and Cd contamination comparing to adolescents and adults. Therefore, more attention needs to be given to children's drinking water safety.
Adsorption of Benzo[a]pyrene Degrading Bacteria on Different Inorganic Mineral Colloids
GAN Xin-hong, TENG Ying, MU Ting-ting, LIU Guo-qiang, XU Jian, LUO Yong-ming
2023, 39(1):  115-122.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0061
Abstract ( 93 )   HTML ( 7)   PDF (1472KB) ( 59 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Based on isothermal adsorption experiments, Ex-DLVO theory, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and other means were used to explore the interface interaction mechanism between typical soil colloids (kaolinite, montmorillonite and hematite) and Paracoccus aminovorans HPD-2, which is a highly efficient degrading bacteria of benzo[a]pyrene. The results show that the isotherm adsorption curves of the three typical soil inorganic colloids on HPD-2 cells were all in accordance with Langmuir adsorption model, and the theoretical maximum adsorption capacity was hematite >> montmorillonite > kaolinite. The Ex-DLVO theory results show that the adsorption process of hematite on HPD-2 cells was spontaneous, while the adsorption of kaolinite and montmorillonite on degrading bacteria needed to cross the energy barrier. The electrostatic force between colloidal particles and cells played a key role in the adsorption process, which was much stronger than van der Waals force and hydrophobic force. FTIR results show that the interaction of kaolinite and montmorillonite on HPD-2 was mainly due to the change of protein configuration on cell surface, and the interaction was weak. In addition to hydrogen bond, strong P-OFe bond was formed between hematite and strain HPD-2. The results elucidate the mechanisms of interface interaction between inorganic mineral colloids with different properties and HPD-2 and can provide theoretical basis for the studies on the effect mechanism of inorganic colloids on the degrading microorganisms viability and colonization on their surface.
High-throughput Sequencing Technology Based Research on the Changes of Culturable Bacteria Communities in Soil during Serial Enrichment
WEN Chang-li, CAO Wei-wei, TANG Xue-lian, ZHAO Wen-shu, JIA Zhong-jun, MENG Lei
2023, 39(1):  123-135.  doi:10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2022.0212
Abstract ( 129 )   HTML ( 10)   PDF (5098KB) ( 62 )  
References | Related Articles | Metrics
High-throughput sequencing technology was used to study the changes in the diversity of culturable bacteria in solid and liquid beef extract peptone soil during serial enrichment, and to quantify the proportion of culturable bacteria in the background microbial community of a paddy soil. Serial passages were performed by setting up treatments of conventional nutrient and 1/10 low nutrient treatments, including conventional beef extract peptone solid (NA) and liquid (NB) cultures, as well as low nutrient solid (1/10 NA) and low nutrient liquid (1/10 NB) cultures. The cultures were enriched 10 times to obtain the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 10th generation of bacterial cultures and then to extract their DNAs. At the same time, all microbial genomic DNAs in the paddy soil were directly extracted and high-throughput sequencing 16S rRNA gene was used to analyze the change of culturable microorganisms communities in the paddy soil and their proportions to the background indigenous microorganisms. The results show that the background Chao index of the microbial diversity of the paddy soil was 4 806, with a maximum reduction of 98.9% in 10 consecutive generations. Among them, the Chao index of solid and liquid culturable microorganisms was the lowest in the first generation, which were 49.7 and 142, respectively. Under 1/10 solid and 1/10 liquid cultures, the Chao index was 75.1 and 531, respectively. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed a total of 713 genera of background indigenous microorganisms in paddy soil. During the enrichment culture process of 10 consecutive passages, 52 and 600 genera were detected in solid and liquid conventional culture, respectively. However, 62 and 597 genera were detected in 1/10 solid and 1/10 liquid cultures, respectively. The highest proportion of culturable bacteria was 8.7% and 83.7%, respectively. During the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 10th consecutive subcultures, 7, 2, 3, 4 and 3 genera were unique to each passage in solid medium, while the unique genera in liquid culture medium were 5, 1, 102, 44, and 24 genera, respectively, and similar results were observed in low-nutrient (1/10) cultures. Pseudomonas was an absolute dominant group in paddy soil during 10 consecutive passages, especially in solid medium, the relative abundance range was 97.70%-99.47%, which is 74 times higher than that of the background in the paddy soil. Under the low-nutrient 1/10 solids, Bacillus and Delftia became the dominant taxa with the increase of passage times, and the highest relative abundance in the 10th generation was 18.07% and 13.82%, respectively. During the 10 consecutive liquid passages, Pseudomonas was also an absolutely dominant group, but compared with solid culturable bacteria, it decreased slightly to 45.48%-55.99%, while Clostridium was the second most dominant group, with a relative abundance ranged from 23.58% to 42.40%, while the genus Lysinibacillus only observed in the 5th, 7th and 10th generations, and its abundance ranged from 1.46% to 6.74%. On the contrary, under the condition of low nutrient 1/10 NB liquid, Clostridium and Lysinibacillus decreased sharply with the increase of culture generation, Pseudomonas became the absolute dominant bacteria, while Paenibacillus increased with increasing passage number. These results show that the background microbial diversity of paddy soil can be up to 96.7 times of culturable bacteria. During the continuous enrichment culture, the Chao index of culturable microorganisms in paddy soil first increased and then decreased, and 74 and 662 genera were obtained by solid and liquid cultures, respectively. The proportion of solid and liquid cultured bacteria in all microorganisms in paddy soil was 10.4% and 92.8%, respectively. In the process of solid and liquid subculture, Pseudomonas was the dominant group, and the diversity of culturable bacteria in liquid was significantly higher than that in solid culture. Under low-nutrient 1/10 solid and 1/10 liquid culture conditions, the culturable microbial groups increased significantly, and some of the microbial groups that appeared in the first generation were gradually replaced by some dominant bacteria, indicating that in the process of continuous enrichment culture, the average number of bacteria in different generations increased. The groups with obvious differences in physiological and metabolic characteristics were enriched, and serial enrichment did not lead to homogenization and simplification of the population structure.